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Resolution 2349

Peace and security in Africa

Abstract

S/RES/2349 (2017)
Security Council Distr.: General 31 March 2017
Resolution 2349 (2017)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 7911th meeting, on 31 March 2017
The Security Council, Recalling its previous resolutions and presidential statements on counterterrorism, conflict prevention in Africa, the protection of civilians, women, peace and security, children and armed conflict, and on the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS) and the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA), Recalling its visit to the Lake Chad Basin Region (the Region) from 2 to 7 March 2017 to engage in dialogue with the Governments of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria, displaced persons, security and humanitarian personnel, civil society including women’s organizations, and regional bodies, Affirming its solidarity and full support for the conflict-affected populations of the Region including displaced and host communities who are suffering from the ongoing security crisis, humanitarian emergency, and development deficits resulting from the violence by terrorist groups Boko Haram and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh), and its solidarity with the respective Governments in their efforts to address these urgent needs, whilst addressing adverse economic conditions, Affirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, Recognizing the determination and ownership of the Governments in the Region, as well as well as sub-regional and regional organizations, to address the impact of Boko Haram and ISIL, Expressing grave concern at the ongoing terrorist attacks perpetrated by Boko Haram and ISIL, and the dire humanitarian situation across the Region caused by the activities of Boko Haram, including large-scale displacement, and the risk of famine in north-east Nigeria, Reaffirming that terrorism in all forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever
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and by whomever committed, and remaining determined to contribute further to enhancing the effectiveness of the overall effort to fight this scourge on a global level, Expressing deep concern that terrorist groups benefiting from transnational organized crime and trafficking in all forms may contribute to undermining affected States, specifically their security, stability, governance, social and economic development, and recognizing the connection between trafficking in persons, sexual violence and terrorism and other transnational organized criminal activities, which can prolong and exacerbate conflict and instability or intensify its impact on civilian populations, Recognizing that security, development, and human rights are interlinked and mutually reinforcing and are vital to an effective and comprehensive approach to countering terrorism, stabilisation and reconciliation, Welcoming the commitment expressed by the Governments in the Region to combat Boko Haram, in order to create a safe and secure environment for civilians, enable the return of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees, facilitate stabilisation, and enable access for humanitarian organisations, in accordance with the African Union Peace and Security Council’s (AUPSC)’s mandate, commending the important territorial advances by the Governments in the Region against Boko Haram, including through the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) which has contributed to the liberation of hostages, the arrest of Boko Haram members, and an increase in the number of defectors, and further paying tribute to all those who have lost lives in the fight against Boko Haram, Recognising the threat posed by terrorist groups Boko Haram and ISIL, and recalling that Boko Haram has been designated as associated with Al-Qaida by the 1267/1989/2253 ISIL (Da’esh) and Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee (the Committee), Underscoring the need for a holistic, comprehensive approach to degrade and defeat Boko Haram and ISIL that includes coordinated security operations, conducted in accordance with applicable international law, as well as enhanced civilian efforts to improve governance, promote development and economic growth in affected areas, tackle radicalisation, and ensure women’s empowerment and protection, Recognizing the interconnectedness of the challenges facing the Lake Chad Basin and the wider Sahel region and encouraging greater regional and international coherence in addressing these challenges,
Security, Protection of Civilians and Human Rights 1. Strongly condemns all terrorist attacks, violations of international humanitarian law and abuses of human rights by Boko Haram and ISIL in the Region, including those involving killings and other violence against civilians, notably women and children, abductions, pillaging, child, early and forced marriage, rape, sexual slavery and other sexual and gender-based violence, and recruitment and use of children, including increasingly the use of girls as suicide bombers, and destruction of civilian property, and calls for those responsible for these acts to be held accountable, and brought to justice;
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2. Recalls the Communiqués of the AUPSC on Boko Haram, including from the 484th meeting, recognises the continued support of the AU to the MNJTF, and calls for the Member States of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) and Benin to continue their efforts in the fight against Boko Haram and implementation of the Communiqués; further acknowledging the need for an effective and strategic relationship between the AUPSC and the Security Council, to enable both institutions to support stability and development in the Lake Chad Basin; 3. Encourages Governments in the Region to sustain momentum, further enhance regional military cooperation and coordination, comply with obligations under international humanitarian and human rights law, secure the conditions to enable safe, timely and unhindered humanitarian access, facilitate the restoration of civilian security and the rule of law in areas restored to Government control, and guarantee free movement of goods and persons; and further encourages regional collaboration on the implementation of the 2016 Abuja Regional Security Summit conclusions and strengthened cooperation under the auspices of a third Regional Security Summit in 2018, including with respect to post-conflict stabilisation and recovery; 4. Welcomes the multilateral and bilateral support provided to the military efforts in the Region and encourages greater support to strengthen the operational capability of the MNJTF to further the Region’s efforts to combat Boko Haram and ISIL, which may include appropriate, logistical, mobility and communications assistance, equipment, as well as modalities to increase effective information sharing as appropriate, given the complex environment in which they operate and the evolving tactics of Boko Haram and ISIL, as well as training, including on sexual and gender-based violence, gender and child protection; 5. Calls for the urgent deployment of the remaining MNJTF civilian personnel, including Human Rights Advisers through the AU, and a dedicated Gender Adviser, and for the pledges made at the AU donor conference of 1 February 2015 in support of the MNJTF to be promptly fulfilled, encourages the AU to disperse funds provided for the MNJTF by key partners, further encourages Member States to contribute generously to the AU Trust Fund, and requests the Secretary-General to advocate strongly with the international community and donors in support of this effort; 6. Reiterates its call on Member States to move vigorously and decisively to cut the flows of funds and other financial assets and economic resources to individuals, groups, undertakings and entities on the ISIL and Al-Qaida Sanctions List, including Boko Haram, reiterates its readiness to consider listing individuals, groups, undertakings and entities providing support to Boko Haram, including those who are financing, arming, planning or recruiting for Boko Haram, and in this regard encourages all Member States to submit to the Committee listing requests for individuals, groups, undertakings and entities supporting Boko Haram; 7. Calls upon the countries of the Region to prevent, criminalize, investigate, prosecute and ensure accountability of those who engage in transnational organized crime, in particular in arms trafficking and trafficking in persons;
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8. Calls upon relevant United Nations entities, including UNOCA, UNOWAS, and the United Nations Office to the African Union (UNOAU) to redouble their support for Governments in the Region, as well as sub-regional and regional organizations, to address the impact of Boko Haram and ISIL violence on the peace and stability of the Region, including by addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, and violent extremism that can be conducive to terrorism, in line with the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, and to conduct and gather gender-sensitive research and data collection on the drivers of radicalization for women, and the impacts of counter-terrorism strategies on women’s human rights and women’s organizations, in order to develop targeted and evidence-based policy and programming responses; 9. Calls upon Member States to ensure that any measures taken to counter terrorism comply with all their obligations under international law, in particular, international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law; and further encourages Governments in the Region to consider, in discussion with communities, the potential impact of operations against and security responses to Boko Haram and ISIL on people’s livelihoods, and freedom of movement; 10. Expresses regret at the tragic loss of life in the January 2017 Rann incident, welcomes the commitment expressed by relevant Nigerian authorities to investigate and ensure accountability for those responsible, and calls for transparency on the findings of the investigation report and action taken; 11. Expresses concern about the protection needs of civilians in the Region affected by the scourge of terrorism, including those resulting from sexual exploitation and abuse, extra-judicial killings, arbitrary detention, torture, and recruitment and use of children in violation of international law; and welcomes initial steps taken such as the deployment of female members of the security services to IDP camps where sexual exploitation and abuse has been reported or confirmed; 12. Reiterates the primary responsibility of Member States to protect civilian populations on their territories, in accordance with their obligations under international law, and calls on all Governments in the Region, and as relevant the United Nations and other actors, to prioritise human rights protection concerns including through: greater cooperation by concerned Governments with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the Offices of the Special Representatives on Sexual Violence in Conflict and Children and Armed Conflict; taking urgent measures to prevent arbitrary arrest and detention and ensure that persons deprived of liberty are treated in accordance with international law; enhanced capacity and responsiveness of national human rights mechanisms across the Region; and taking measures to increase the number of women in the security sector; 13. Emphasises the importance of strengthening cross-border judicial cooperation in identifying and prosecuting perpetrators of human rights violations and abuses, as well as the most serious crimes, such as sexual and gender-based violence; calls on Governments in the Region to provide rapid access for survivors of abduction and sexual violence to specialised medical and psychosocial services, and community reintegration, to prevent stigmatisation and persecution, and
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encourages the international community to extend its support in this regard; urges the prompt investigation of all allegations of abuse, including sexual abuse, and holding those responsible accountable; and encourages the creation of a timeline for transferral of camp management to civilian structures to ensure the civilian nature of IDP sites, whilst taking due consideration of the security situation in these sites; 14. Urges Governments in the Region to ensure women’s full and equal participation in national institutions and mechanisms for the prevention and resolution of conflicts, including in the development of strategies to counter Boko Haram and ISIL, welcomes initial efforts in the Region to address women’s representation such as the 25% quota for elected offices in Niger, and strongly encourages the further development, implementation and funding of National Action Plans on Women, Peace and Security by Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria; and encourages all regional organizations engaged in peace and security efforts in the Region to ensure that gender analysis and women’s participation are integrated into their assessments, planning, and operations;
Humanitarian 15. Welcomes the efforts of Governments in the Region and of regional and sub-regional organisations, as well as the hospitality provided by host communities for the millions of displaced people, the majority of whom are women and children, who are uniquely impacted, and urges Governments in the Region, donors and relevant international non-governmental organisations to urgently redouble their efforts and ensure close coordination, including between development and humanitarian actors, in particular to enhance early recovery, food security, improve living conditions, and increase livelihood opportunities; 16. Urges all parties to the conflict to ensure respect for and protection of humanitarian personnel, facilities, and their means of transport and equipment, and to facilitate safe, timely and unhindered access for humanitarian organisations to deliver lifesaving aid to affected people, and in particular in the case of Governments, where applicable, through facilitating bureaucratic and administrative procedures such as the expediting of outstanding registrations, and importation of humanitarian supplies, and further calls upon Governments in the Region to increase collaboration with United Nations partners including through more effective civilian-military coordination mechanisms; 17. Welcomes the $458 million in humanitarian assistance pledged at the Oslo conference for 2017 and urges swift disbursement of these funds to prevent further deterioration of the humanitarian crisis and to begin to address endemic development needs; and strongly encourages all other/non-traditional donors to contribute in line with the needs highlighted in the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plans of each country; 18. Further welcomes the Government of Nigeria’s announcement of its 2017 spending plans for north-east Nigeria which project total federal and state government expenditure of $1 billion on development and humanitarian activities, and urges swift implementation of these plans; 19. Welcomes the scaling up of the United Nations response, especially in north-east Nigeria, and calls for further deployment of experienced staff, measures
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to reduce staff turnover, and strong coordination, including through creation of civil-military coordination guidelines, provision of training to further improve coordination between armed forces and humanitarian personnel, coordination across borders and the development of multi-year prioritised plans; and further calls on all humanitarian organisations to ensure programming is gender-sensitive, based on strengthening resilience within communities and developed based on the need of, and where possible in consultation with affected people and local organisations; 20. Urges relevant national and through them local authorities to ensure that resources dedicated to the humanitarian effort are directed to those most in need; 21. Calls upon Governments in the Region to ensure that the return of refugees and IDPs to their areas of origin is voluntary, based on informed decisions, and in safety and dignity; urges relevant national and local authorities to work cooperatively with displaced persons and host communities, to prevent secondary displacement of affected populations, and to take all necessary steps to respond to the humanitarian needs of host communities, and encourages the international community to extend its support in this regard; welcomes the signing by the Governments of Nigeria and Cameroon, and the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, of the tripartite agreement on 2 March 2017 on the voluntary repatriation of Nigerian refugees, and urges its swift and complete implementation;
Root Causes and Development 22. Calls upon the Governments in the Region to take further measures to address social, political, economic and gender inequalities, and environmental challenges, and to develop strategies to counter the violent extremist narrative that can incite terrorist acts, and address the conditions conducive to the spread of violent extremism, which can be conducive to terrorism, including by empowering youth, families, women, religious, cultural and education leaders, in order to help address the conditions which have enabled the emergence and survival of Boko Haram and ISIL; 23. Recognises the complex challenges faced by the Region and welcomes the development of programmes by the respective Governments to help build and sustain peace by addressing the root causes of the crisis, namely the “Buhari Plan” of Nigeria, the Programme “Renaissance” of Niger, the “Recovery Road Map” the Special Youth Triennial Programme of Cameroon, the “Vision 2030: the Chad we want” of Chad, and the Lake Chad Development and Climate Resilience Action Plan of the LCBC; calls upon respective Governments to strengthen their coordination and prioritisation within these programmes to enable effective implementation, and calls upon international partners to extend their support in this regard; 24. Calls upon Governments in the Region, including through the support of the international community, to support early recovery activities and long-term investment in vital services such as health care and education, agriculture, infrastructure such as the safe trade corridor and livelihoods, social cohesion, good governance, and the rule of law, to enhance longer-term recovery and resilience of populations, particularly for the areas with the most pressing need;
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25. Encourages the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), together with the LCBC, to develop a comprehensive and common strategy that effectively addresses the drivers that contributed to the emergence of Boko Haram and ISIL, with a particular focus on longer term development needs; and further urges the two sub-regional organisations to convene their planned summit on Boko Haram to adopt a common strategy and develop active cooperation and coordination mechanisms; 26. Recognises the adverse effects of climate change and ecological changes among other factors on the stability of the Region, including through water scarcity, drought, desertification, land degradation, and food insecurity, and emphasises the need for adequate risk assessments and risk management strategies by governments and the United Nations relating to these factors; 27. Acknowledges the important contribution of civil society, in particular women’s and youth organisations, to conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and peacebuilding and humanitarian efforts in the region, and encourages greater dialogue between respective Governments and civil society, as well as support; 28. Calls upon the United Nations and its partners to make further progress towards the implementation of the United Nations Integrated Strategy for the Sahel (UNISS) in order to address comprehensively the security, political, and developmental challenges and the underlying root causes and drivers of instability and conflicts in the Sahel region;
Disarmament, demobilisation, rehabilitation and reintegration, and accountability 29. Encourages Governments in the Region, in collaboration with regional and sub-regional organisations, relevant United Nations entities and other relevant stakeholders, and, in the context of this resolution, to develop and implement a regional and coordinated strategy that encompasses transparent, inclusive, human rights-compliant disarmament, demobilisation, de-radicalisation, rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives, in line with strategies for prosecution, where appropriate, for persons associated with Boko Haram and ISIL, drawing upon regional and international best practice and lessons learned; and urges relevant national and through them local actors, to develop and implement appropriate plans for the disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration, and where appropriate prosecution of the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) and other community-based security groups; 30. Stresses the need to pay particular attention to the treatment and reintegration of women and children formerly associated with Boko Haram and ISIL, including through the signing and implementing of protocols for the rapid handover of children suspected of having association with Boko Haram to relevant civilian child protection actors, as well as access for child protection actors to all centres holding children, in accordance with applicable international obligations, and the best interests of the child; 31. Urges Governments in the Region to develop and implement consistent policies for promoting defections from Boko Haram and ISIL and for deradicalising and reintegrating those who do defect, and to ensure that there is no impunity for those responsible for terrorist acts, and abuses and violations of international human
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rights and violations of humanitarian law; and invites the international community to extend its support to the Governments in the Region in developing and implementing their disarmament, demobilisation, rehabilitation and reintegration strategies and policies; 32. Calls upon concerned governments to urgently develop and implement, consistent with international law, in particular international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law as applicable, vetting criteria and processes allowing for the prompt assessment of all persons who have been associated with Boko Haram and ISIL in the custody of authorities, including persons captured or surrendered to authorities, or who are found in refugee or IDP camps, and to ensure that children are treated in accordance with international law; and encourages Governments in the Region, within the context of this resolution, to prosecute those responsible for terrorist acts, where appropriate, and to develop both rehabilitation programmes in custodial settings for detained terrorist suspects and sentenced persons, and reintegration programmes to assist persons either released from custody having served their sentence or those who have completed a rehabilitation programme in an alternative setting, in order to facilitate reintegration into their communities;
Follow-Up 33. Encourages the Secretary-General, with a view to enhancing collaboration and responsibility among relevant entities and mobilising resources for the region, to make a high level visit to the Region, and invites him to consider undertaking a joint visit with the World Bank, Chairperson of the AU Commission, the President of the World Bank Group, and the President of the African Development Bank, to strengthen the focus on and commitment to the Region of the international community; 34. Requests the Secretary-General to produce a written report within five months on the United Nations’ assessment of the situation in the Lake Chad Basin Region as it relates to elements of this resolution, particularly regarding the progress made and remaining challenges, and possible measures for consideration, including with respect to achieving greater coherence of efforts in the context of overlapping regional strategies, and thereafter to include these elements in regular reporting by UNOCA and UNOWAS.

Topics
Africa, Chad, Niger, Terrorism, Cameroon, Nigeria
Year
2017
Title
Peace and security in Africa
Security Council Composition
CHN FRA RUS GBR USA BOL ETH ITA KAZ SWE EGY JPN SEN UKR URY