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Resolution 2499

The situation in the Central African Republic

Abstract

Security Council Distr.: General 15 November 2019
Resolution 2499 (2019)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 8666th meeting, on 15 November 2019
The Security Council, Recalling all of its previous resolutions, statements of its President, and press statements on the situation in the Central African Republic (CAR), Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the CAR, and recalling the importance of the principles of non-interference, good-neighbourliness and regional cooperation, Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, such as consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, recognising that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned, underlining that the mandates that it authorises are consistent with the basic principles, reiterating that the Security Council expects full delivery of the mandates it authorises, and recalling in this regard its resolution 2436 (2018), Recalling that the CAR authorities have the primary responsibility to protect all populations in the CAR in particular from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, and recalling in this regard the importance of restoring state authority in all parts of the country, Emphasizing that any sustainable solution to the crisis in the CAR should be CAR-owned, including the political process, and should prioritize reconciliation of the Central African people, through an inclusive process that involves men and women of all social, economic, political, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including, those displaced by the crisis, Welcoming the signing of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR by the CAR authorities and 14 armed groups in Bangui on 6 February 2019 (“the Peace Agreement”), after the peace talks that took place in Khartoum, Sudan, from 24 January to 5 February 2019, within the framework of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR and under the auspices of the African Union (AU), Condemning in the strongest terms violations of the Peace Agreement and violence perpetrated by armed groups and other militias, throughout the country, including in Paoua in May 2019 and in the Vakaga prefecture in September and October 2019, incitement to ethnic and religious hatred and violence, violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations and abuses, including those committed against children and those involving sexual and gender-based violence in conflict, as well as violence directed at civilians from specific communities, resulting in deaths, injuries and displacements, Stressing the urgent and imperative need to end impunity in the CAR and to bring to justice perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law and of abuses and violations of human rights, Underlining the continued need to support national efforts towards the extension of State authority and the reform of the security sector (SSR) in the CAR, Welcoming the work carried out by MINUSCA and the European Union Training Mission in the CAR (EUTM-RCA), as well as the support of CAR’s other international and regional partners, including France, the Russian Federation, the United States and the People’s Republic of China, to train and enhance the capacities of the CAR defence and security forces, and encouraging coherence, transparency and effective coordination of international support to the CAR, Condemning cross-border criminal activities, such as arms trafficking, illicit trade, illegal exploitation, and smuggling of natural resources, including gold, diamonds, wildlife poaching and trafficking, the use of mercenaries, as well as the illicit transfer, destabilising accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, that threaten the peace and stability of the CAR and stressing the need for CAR authorities to finalise and implement, in cooperation with relevant partners, a strategy to tackle the illegal exploitation and smuggling of natural resources, Taking note of the upcoming presidential, legislative and local elections in 2020 and 2021 and underlining the primary responsibility of the CAR authorities to organise inclusive, free, fair, transparent, credible, and peaceful electoral processes in accordance with constitutional timelines, including the full, effective and meaningful participation of women, reaffirming the importance of the participation of the youth, and encouraging the CAR authorities, with the support of relevant partners, to promote the participation of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees in accordance with the Constitution of the CAR, Recalling its resolutions on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, on Children and Armed Conflict, and on Women Peace and Security and calling upon all the parties in the CAR to engage with the Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict and the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Expressing serious concern about the dire humanitarian situation in the CAR and the consequences of the security situation on humanitarian access, condemning in the strongest terms continued attacks against humanitarian workers, and emphasising the current humanitarian needs of more than half of the population of the country as well as the alarming situation of IDPs and refugees in neighbouring countries, Recognising the adverse effects of climate change, ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, on the stability of the Central African region, including through drought, desertification, land degradation, food insecurity, and energy access, and stressing the need for adequate risk assessment by the United Nations relating to these factors and for long-term strategies by governments of the Central African region and the United Nations to support stabilisation and build resilience, Condemning in the strongest terms all attacks, provocations and incitement to violence against MINUSCA and other international forces by armed groups or other perpetrators, paying tribute to the personnel of MINUSCA who sacrificed their lives in the service of peace, underlining that attacks targeting peacekeepers may constitute war crimes, reminding all parties of their obligations under international humanitarian law and urging the CAR authorities to take all possible measures to ensure the arrest and prosecution of perpetrators, Recalling resolution 2378 (2017) and its request of the Secretary-General to ensure that data related to the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations, including peacekeeping performance data, is used to improve analytics and the evaluation of mission operations, based on clear and well identified benchmarks, further recalling resolution 2436 (2018) and its request of the Secretary-General to ensure that decisions to recognize and incentivize outstanding performance and decisions regarding deployment, remediation, training, withholding of financial reimbursement, and repatriation of uniformed or dismissal of civilian personnel, are predicated on objective performance data, and emphasizing the need to regularly evaluate MINUSCA’s performance such that the mission retains the skills and flexibility needed to effectively carry out its mandate, Taking note of the Report of the Secretary-General of 15 October 2019 (S/2019/822), Determining that the situation in the CAR continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region, Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
Political process, including the implementation of the Peace Agreement 1. Reiterates its support to President Faustin-Archange Touadéra and to his government in their efforts to promote lasting peace and stability in the CAR through a comprehensive political process and to adhere to their commitments under the Peace Agreement; 2. Urges the CAR authorities and the signatory armed groups to implement the Peace Agreement in good faith and without delay in order to meet the aspirations expressed by the people of the CAR to peace, security, justice, reconciliation, inclusivity and development, and to resolve their disputes peacefully, including through the follow-up and dispute resolution mechanisms of the Peace Agreement, and further calls on all political stakeholders in the CAR to support the implementation of the Peace Agreement; 3. Recalls in this regard the priorities that were presented by the CAR authorities during the meeting of the International Support Group on 17 June 2019 in Bangui including, inter alia, the cessation of hostilities, raising awareness on the Peace Agreement, the operationalisation of the monitoring and implementation mechanisms, the launch of the inclusive commission on justice and of the Truth, Justice, Reparations and Reconciliation commission, the continuation of the disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration and repatriation (DDRR) process, the establishment of the special mixed security units, the adoption of laws on decentralisation, the status of former heads of state and on political parties, the preparation of 2020/2021 elections, the reinforcement of local reconciliation mechanisms, and the provision of basic services to the population; 4. Demands that armed groups cease violations of the Peace Agreement and all forms of violence against civilians, United Nations peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel, destabilising activities, incitement to hatred and violence and restrictions on freedom of movement, and lay down their arms, immediately and unconditionally, in line with their commitments under the Peace Agreement; 5. Recalls that individuals or entities that undermine peace and stability in the CAR could be listed for targeted measures pursuant to resolution 2454 (2019);
6. Calls on neighbouring states, regional organisations and all international partners to support the peace process, including the implementation of the Peace Agreement, in a coherent and coordinated manner and through strengthened partnerships, emphasises the important role of the guarantors and facilitators of the Peace Agreement, including the AU, the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) and neighbouring states, using their influence to enhance adherence by armed groups to their commitments, and further emphasises the importance of establishing measures, including sanctions, and mechanisms that could be applied against non-compliant parties pursuant to article 35 of the Peace Agreement; 7. Calls on the CAR authorities and the authorities of neighbouring countries to cooperate at the regional level to investigate and combat transnational criminal networks and armed groups involved in arms trafficking and in the illegal exploitation of natural resources, calls for the reactivation of joint bilateral commissions between the CAR and neighbouring countries to address cross-border issues, including issues related to arms trafficking, and urges the joint bilateral commissions between the CAR and Cameroon and the CAR and the Republic of Congo to take agreed next steps to secure common borders; 8. Encourages the CAR authorities to cement and broaden national ownership of the Peace Agreement, including through sensitisation campaigns, recalls in this regard the crucial role of civil society in the peace and reconciliation process and the need for the CAR authorities to adequately promote its participation in the implementation of the Peace Agreement as well as in the comprehensive political process, and further encourages the full, effective and meaningful participation of women and youth in this process; 9. Urges the CAR authorities to urgently implement a genuine and inclusive process to support reconciliation in the CAR by addressing the root causes of the conflict, including the marginalisation of civilians from specific communities, issues of national identity, local grievances of all the components of society over the whole territory of the CAR, and issues related to transhumance, including through electoral processes, national policies on economic development and civil service recruitment, and to promote reconciliation initiatives at the regional, national, prefectural and local levels; 10. Urges the CAR authorities and all national stakeholders to ensure the preparation of inclusive, free, fair, transparent, credible, peaceful, and timely presidential, legislative and local elections in 2020 and 2021, in accordance with the Constitution of the CAR, including the full, effective and meaningful participation of women, encourages the participation of youth, calls on all parties to refrain from incitement to violence and to ensure that any outstanding issues regarding the electoral framework and related reforms are finalised, further calls upon CAR authorities to ensure secure conditions for the conduct of elections and unrestricted access to the polls, including through cooperation with MINUSCA, consistent with the Mission’s role regarding the protection of civilians, and encourages the international community to provide adequate support, including technical and financial support, to the upcoming elections; 11. Also calls upon the CAR authorities to ensure that national policies and legislative frameworks adequately protect the human rights of IDPs, including freedom of movement, and support safe, voluntary, dignified and sustainable returns, local integration or resettlement for IDPs and refugee populations, and provide for IDPs and refugees to participate in the elections; 12. Urges the CAR authorities to address the presence and activity of armed groups in the CAR by implementing a comprehensive strategy that prioritises dialogue and the urgent implementation of an inclusive, gender-sensitive and effective DDR as well as repatriation (DDRR) in the case of foreign fighters, including children formerly associated with armed forces and groups, as well as continuing the implementation of community violence reduction projects, and calls on the CAR authorities to implement the interim security measures provided for in the Peace Agreement, including the special mixed security units following vetting, disarmament, demobilisation and training, to promote trust and confidence between signatory parties and as a platform for the deployment of State authority, in a manner complementary to DDRR and SSR processes; 13. Calls on the CAR authorities to implement the National Security Policy, the National Strategy on SSR and the National Defence Plan, including with the support of the international community, in order to put in place professional, ethnically representative, regionally balanced, taking into account the recruitment of women, and appropriately trained and equipped national defence and security forces, including through the adoption and implementation of appropriate vetting procedures of all defence and security personnel, including human rights vetting, as well as measures to absorb disarmed and demobilised elements of armed groups meeting rigorous eligibility and vetting criteria; 14. Calls on the CAR authorities to ensure that redeployments of defence and security forces are sustainable, do not pose a risk to the stabilisation of the country, civilians or the political process, and demonstrate that the CAR authorities have strengthened oversight, command and control, and appropriate budgetary support and to continue to implement a comprehensive national security strategy that is consistent with the peace process, including the Peace Agreement; 15. Calls on the CAR authorities to take concrete steps, without delay and as a matter of priority, to strengthen justice institutions at national and local levels as part of the extension of State authority in order to fight impunity and to contribute to stabilisation and reconciliation, including through the restoration of the administration of the judiciary, criminal justice and penitentiary systems throughout the country, the investigations of the Special Criminal Court (SCC), the demilitarisation of the prisons, the establishment of transitional justice mechanisms, based on a victimcentred approach, including the operationalisation of the Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation Commission and the finalisation of the works of the inclusive commission provided for in the Peace Agreement, to ensure accountability for past crimes and reparation for victims, and by ensuring access to fair and equal justice for all in line with the conclusions of the Bangui Forum held in May 2015; 16. Calls on the CAR authorities to continue their efforts to restore the effective authority of the State over the whole territory of the CAR, including by redeploying State administration and providing basic services in the provinces, ensuring the timely payment of salaries to civil servants and defence and security forces, and by adopting and implementing the law on decentralisation, with the objective of ensuring stable, accountable, inclusive and transparent governance; 17. Stresses in this context the valuable role of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in bringing strategic advice, providing observations for the Security Council’s consideration, and fostering a more coherent, coordinated and integrated approach to international peacebuilding efforts, recognises the active role of the Kingdom of Morocco, and encourages continued coordination with the PBC and other relevant international organisations and institutions in support of CAR’s long term peace building needs;
Economic recovery and development 18. Encourages the CAR authorities, with the support of the international community, in particular with International Financial Institutions leading international efforts, and based on critical peace and State building goals, to continue consolidating public financial management and accountability in a manner that allows it to meet the expenses related to the functioning of the State, implement early recovery plans, and revitalise the economy, and that fosters national ownership; 19. Further calls on Member States, international and regional organisations to disburse pledges made at the international conference in Brussels on 17 November 2016 in support of the implementation of the country’s peacebuilding priorities and socioeconomic development as outlined in the CAR’s National Strategy for Recovery and Peace Consolidation (RCPCA) and within the Framework of Mutual Accountability (CEM-RCA); 20. Encourages the CAR authorities to accelerate the effective implementation of the RCPCA and relevant partners to support the efforts of the CAR authorities through the RCPCA Secretariat to lay the foundation of durable peace in the CAR and sustainable development of all regions of the country, to boost peace dividends for the population and development projects, including critical investments in infrastructure, which would address logistical challenges in the country and strengthen the CAR authorities’ and MINUSCA’s mobility and ability to provide security and protect civilians, to combat poverty and to help the population of the CAR build sustainable livelihoods;
Human rights, including child protection and sexual violence in conflict 21. Reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights irrespective of their status or political affiliation, reiterates that some of those acts may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), to which the CAR is a State party, and recalls that committing acts of incitement to violence, in particular on an ethnic or religious basis, and then engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR could be a basis for sanctions designations pursuant to resolution 2454 (2019); 22. Recalls the decision made by the Prosecutor of the ICC on 24 September 2014 to open, following the request of the national authorities, an investigation into alleged crimes committed since 2012 and the ongoing cooperation of the CAR authorities in this regard; 23. Calls on the CAR authorities to follow-up on the recommendations of the report of the Mapping Project describing serious violations and abuses of international human rights and violations of international humanitarian law committed within the territory of CAR between January 2003 and December 2015; 24. Urges all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including armed groups, to end all violations and abuses committed against children, in violation of applicable international law, including those involving their recruitment and use, rape and sexual violence, killing and maiming, abductions and attacks on schools and hospitals, further calls upon the CAR authorities to respect their obligations under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict that they ratified on 21 September 2017, and to swiftly investigate alleged violations and abuses in order to fight against impunity of those responsible and to ensure that those responsible for such violations and abuses are excluded from the security sector, calls for the full and immediate implementation of action plans signed by some armed groups in 2018 and 2019 and for other armed groups to sign such action plans, reiterates its demands that all parties protect and consider as victims those children who have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups, in particular by establishing standard operating procedures for the rapid handover of these children to relevant civilian child protection actors, and emphasises the need to pay particular attention to the protection, release and reintegration of all children associated with armed forces and armed groups; 25. Calls upon all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including armed groups, to end sexual and gender-based violence, further calls upon the CAR authorities to swiftly investigate alleged abuses in order to fight against impunity of those responsible for such acts, and to develop a structured and comprehensive framework to address sexual violence in conflict to ensure that those responsible for such crimes are excluded from the security sector and prosecuted, and to facilitate immediate access for all survivors of sexual violence to available services, calls on the CAR authorities and international partners to sustain adequate support to the Mixed Unit for Rapid Intervention and Suppression of Sexual Violence against Women and Children (UMIRR), and further calls for the swift prosecution of alleged perpetrators;
MINUSCA’s mandate 26. Expresses its strong support to the Special Representative of the SecretaryGeneral Mankeur Ndiaye; 27. Decides to extend the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2020; 28. Decides that MINUSCA shall continue to comprise up to 11,650 military personnel, including 480 Military Observers and Military Staff Officers, and 2,080 police personnel, including 400 Individual Police Officers and 1,680 formed police unit personnel, as well as 108 corrections officers and recalls its intention to keep this number under continuous review; 29. Decides that MINUSCA’s strategic objective is to support the creation of the political, security and institutional conditions conducive to the sustainable reduction of the presence of, and threat posed by, armed groups through a comprehensive approach and proactive and robust posture without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping; 30. Recalls that MINUSCA’s mandate should be implemented based on a prioritisation of tasks established in paragraphs 32 to 34 of this resolution, and, when relevant, in a sequenced manner, and further requests the Secretary-General to reflect this prioritisation in the deployment of the Mission and to align budgetary resources according to the prioritisation of mandate tasks as set out in this resolution, while ensuring appropriate resources for the implementation of the mandate; 31. Authorises MINUSCA to take all necessary means to carry out its mandate within its capabilities and areas of deployment;
Priority tasks 32. Decides that the mandate of MINUSCA shall include the following priority tasks:
(a) Protection of civilians (i) To protect, in line with S/PRST/2018/18 of 21 September 2018, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR authorities and the basic principles of peacekeeping, the civilian population under threat of physical violence; (ii) In support of the CAR authorities, to take active steps to anticipate, deter and effectively respond to serious and credible threats to the civilian population through a comprehensive and integrated approach and, in this regard:
– to ensure effective and dynamic protection of civilians under threat of physical violence through a comprehensive and integrated approach, including by anticipating, deterring, and stopping all armed groups, signatories of the Peace Agreement and non-signatories, and local militias from inflicting violence on the populations, in consultation with local communities, and by supporting and undertaking local mediation efforts to prevent escalation of violence, in line with the basic principles of peacekeeping, including in cases of violations of the Peace Agreement, and outbreaks of violence between ethnic or religious rival groups; – to enhance its interaction with civilians, to strengthen its early warning mechanism, to increase its efforts to monitor and document violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights and to strengthen local community engagement and empowerment; – to maintain a proactive deployment and a mobile, flexible and robust posture, including by conducting active patrolling, in particular in high risk areas; – to mitigate the risk to civilians before, during and after any military or police operation, including by tracking, preventing, minimising, and addressing civilian harm resulting from the Mission’s operations, including in support of national security forces; – to work with the CAR authorities to identify and report threats to and attacks against civilians and implement existing prevention and response plans and strengthen civil-military cooperation, including joint planning; (iii) To provide specific protection for women and children affected by armed conflict, including through the deployment of Child Protection Advisers, Women Protection Advisers and Gender Advisers and by adopting a gender-sensitive, survivor-centred approach in this regard, especially to provide the best assistance to survivors of sexual violence; (iv) To fully implement its protection of civilians strategy in coordination with CAR authorities, the United Nations Country Team (UNCT), humanitarian and human right organisations, and other relevant partners;
(b) Good offices and support to the peace process, including the implementation of the Peace Agreement, elections, national reconciliation, social cohesion and transitional justice at national and local levels (i) To continue its political role in the peace process, including through political, technical and operational support to the implementation of the Peace Agreement and to take active steps to support the CAR authorities in the creation of the conditions conducive to the full implementation of the Peace Agreement; (ii) To ensure that the Mission’s political and security strategies promote a coherent peace process, particularly in support of the Peace Agreement, that connects local and national peace efforts with the ongoing efforts to advance DDRR process, the SSR process, the fight against impunity, and the restoration of State authority; (iii) To assist the CAR authorities’ efforts, at national and local levels, for an increased participation of political parties, civil society, women, survivors of sexual violence, youth, faith-based organisations, and where and when possible, IDPs and refugees to the peace process, including the Peace Agreement; (iv) To provide good offices and technical expertise in support of efforts to address the root causes of conflict, including those referred to in paragraph 9 of this resolution, in particular to advance national reconciliation and local conflict resolution, working with relevant regional and local bodies and religious leaders, while ensuring the full, effective and meaningful participation of women, including survivors of sexual violence, in line with the CAR action plan on Women, Peace and Security, including through the support to local dialogue and community engagement; (v) To support efforts of the CAR authorities to address transitional justice as part of the peace and reconciliation process, and marginalisation and local grievances, including through dialogue with the armed groups, civil society leaders including women and youth representatives, including survivors of sexual violence, and by assisting national, prefectoral and local authorities to foster confidence among communities; (vi) To provide technical expertise to the CAR authorities in its engagement with neighbouring countries, the ECCAS, and the AU, in consultation and coordination with the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA) to resolve issues of common and bilateral interest and to promote their continued and full support for the Peace Agreement; (vii) To make more proactive use of strategic communications to support its protection of civilians’ strategy, in coordination with the CAR authorities, to help the local population better understand the mandate of the Mission, its activities, the Peace Agreement and the electoral process, and to build trust with the CAR citizens, parties to the conflict, regional and other international actors and partners on the ground; (viii) To continue to coordinate international support and assistance to the peace process, including through the International Support Group, as appropriate;
(c) 2020/2021 elections To assist the CAR authorities in the preparation and delivery of peaceful presidential, legislative and local elections of 2020/2021 by providing good offices, security, operational, logistical and, as appropriate, technical support, in particular to facilitate access to remote areas, and by coordinating international electoral assistance;
(d) Facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance To improve coordination with all humanitarian actors, including United Nations agencies, and to facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered, civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance, in accordance with United Nations guiding humanitarian principles and relevant provisions of international law, and for the voluntary safe, dignified and sustainable return or local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons or refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors;
(e) Protection of the United Nations To protect the United Nations personnel, installations, equipment and goods and ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel;
Other tasks 33. Further authorises MINUSCA to pursue the following tasks of its mandate, bearing in mind that these tasks as well as those in paragraph 32 above are mutually reinforcing:
(a) Support for the extension of State authority, the deployment of security forces, and the preservation of territorial integrity (i) To continue to support the CAR authorities in implementing its strategy for the extension of State authority, including through the implementation of relevant provisions of the Peace Agreement, for the establishment of interim security and administrative arrangements acceptable to the population and under CAR authorities’ oversight, and through a prioritised division of labour with the UNCT and relevant partners; (ii) To support a gradual handover of security of key officials, and static guard duties of national institutions, to the CAR security forces, in coordination with the CAR authorities, based on the risks on the ground and taking into account the electoral context; (iii) To promote and support the rapid extension of State authority over the entire territory of the CAR, including by supporting the deployment of vetted and trained national police and gendarmerie in priority areas, including through co-location, advising, mentoring and monitoring, in coordination with other partners, as part of the deployment of the territorial administration and other rule of law authorities; (iv) To provide enhanced planning and technical assistance and limited logistical support for the progressive redeployment of a limited number of Central African Armed Forces (FACA) units trained or certified by EUTM-RCA, and a limited number of vetted or trained Internal Security Forces (ISF), engaged in joint operations with MINUSCA that include joint planning and tactical cooperation, in order to support the implementation of MINUSCA’s current mandated tasks, including to protect civilians, and to support national authorities in the restoration and maintenance of public safety and the rule of law, in accordance with MINUSCA’s mandate and the United Nations Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (HRDDP), without exacerbating the risks to the stabilisation of the country, civilians, the political process, to UN peacekeepers, or the impartiality of the Mission, to perform this task by reallocating approved resources, and to review this limited logistical support in one year to ensure its compliance with the benchmarks outlined in the Secretary-General’s letter to the President of the Security Council of 15 May 2018 (S/2018/463);
(b) Security Sector Reform (SSR) (i) To provide strategic and technical advice to the CAR authorities to implement the National Strategy on SSR and the National Defence Plan, in close coordination with EUTM-RCA and CAR’s other international partners, including France, the Russian Federation, the United States and the People’s Republic of China, and with the aim of ensuring coherence of the SSR process, including through a clear delineation of responsibilities between the FACA, the ISF and other uniformed entities, as well as the democratic control of both defence and internal security forces; (ii) To continue to support the CAR authorities in developing an approach to the vetting of defence and security elements which includes human rights vetting, in particular to promote accountability for violations of international and domestic law and in the context of any integration of demobilised armed groups elements into security sector institutions; (iii) To take a leading role in supporting the CAR authorities in enhancing the capacities of the ISF, particularly command and control structures and oversight mechanisms and to coordinate the provision of technical assistance and training between the international partners in the CAR, in particular with EUTM-RCA, in order to ensure a clear distribution of tasks in the field of SSR; (iv) To continue to support the CAR authorities in the training of police and gendarmerie and in the selection, recruitment, and vetting of police and gendarmerie elements, with the support of donors and the UNCT, taking into account the need to recruit women at all levels, and in full compliance with the United Nations HRDDP;
(c) Disarmament, Demobilisation, Reintegration (DDR) and Repatriation (DDRR) (i) To support the CAR authorities in implementing an inclusive and progressive programme for the DDR and, in case of foreign elements, repatriation, of members of armed groups, based on the Principles of DDRR and Integration into the Uniformed Corps, signed at the Bangui Forum in May 2015, while paying specific attention to the needs of children associated with armed forces and groups, the need to ensure the separation of children from these forces and groups, and the need to prevent re-recruitment, and including gender-sensitive programmes; (ii) To support the CAR authorities and relevant civil society organisations in developing and implementing CVR programmes, including gender-sensitive programmes, for members of armed groups including those not eligible for participation in the national DDRR programme, in cooperation with development partners and together with communities of return in line with the priorities highlighted in the RCPCA; (iii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR authorities in implementing a national plan for the integration of eligible demobilised members of armed groups into the security and defence forces, in line with the broader SSR process, the need to put in place professional, ethnically representative and regionally balanced national security and defence, and to provide technical advice to the CAR authorities in implementing the interim security arrangements provided for in the Peace Agreement, such as the special mixed security units following vetting, disarmament, demobilisation and training; (iv) To coordinate the support provided by multilateral and bilateral partners, including the World Bank, to the efforts of the CAR authorities on DDRR programs to reintegrate eligible and vetted members of the armed groups into peaceful civilian life and to help ensure that these efforts will lead to sustainable socioeconomic reintegration;
(d) Promotion and protection of human rights (i) To monitor, help investigate, and timely report to the Security Council and publicly on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR; (ii) To monitor, help investigate and ensure reporting on violations and abuses committed against children and women, including rape and other forms of sexual violence in armed conflict, in connection with the UMIRR; (iii) To assist the CAR authorities in their efforts to protect and promote human rights and prevent violations and abuses and to strengthen the capacity of civil society organisations;
(e) Support for national and international justice, the fight against impunity, and the rule of law (i) To help reinforce the independence of the judiciary, build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the national judicial system as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of the penitentiary system including through the provision of technical assistance to the CAR authorities to identify, investigate and prosecute those responsible for crimes involving violations of international humanitarian law and of violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR; (ii) To help build the capacities of the national human rights institution coordinating with the Independent Expert on human rights in the CAR as appropriate; Urgent temporary measures: (iii) To urgently and actively adopt, within the limits of its capacities and areas of deployment, at the formal request of the CAR authorities and in areas where national security forces are not present or operational, urgent temporary measures on an exceptional basis, without creating a precedent and without prejudice to the agreed principles of peacekeeping operations, which are limited in scope, time-bound and consistent with the objectives set out in paragraphs 32 and 33 (e), to arrest and detain in order to maintain basic law and order and fight impunity and to pay particular attention in this regard to those engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR; Special Criminal Court (SCC): (iv) To provide technical assistance, in partnership with other international partners and the UNCT, and capacity building for the CAR authorities, to facilitate the operationalisation and the functioning of the SCC, in particular in the areas of investigations, arrests, detention, criminal and forensic analysis, evidence collection and storage, recruitment and selection of personnel, court management, prosecution strategy and case development and the establishment of a legal aid system, as appropriate, as well as to provide security for magistrates, including at the premises and proceedings of the SCC, and take measures for the protection of victims and witnesses, in line with the CAR’s international humanitarian law and international human rights obligations; (v) To assist in the coordination and mobilisation of increased bilateral and multilateral support to the functioning of the SCC; Rule of law: (vi) To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to build the capacities and enhance the effectiveness of the criminal justice system, within the framework of the United Nations global focal point on rule of law, as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of police and penitentiary system with the support of the UNCT; (vii) Without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR authorities, to support the restoration and maintenance of public safety and the rule of law, including through apprehending and handing over to the CAR authorities, consistent with international law, those in the country responsible for crimes involving serious human rights violations and abuses and serious violations of international humanitarian law, including sexual violence in conflict, so that they can be brought to justice, and through cooperation with states of the region as well as the ICC in cases of crimes falling within its jurisdiction following the decision made by the Prosecutor of the ICC on 24 September 2014 to open, following the request of national authorities, an investigation into alleged crimes committed since 2012;
Additional tasks 34. Further authorises MINUSCA to carry out the following additional tasks: (a) To assist the Committee established pursuant to paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013) and the Panel of Experts established by the same resolution; (b) To monitor the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraphs 1 and 2 of resolution 2488 (2019), in cooperation with the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), including by inspecting, as it deems necessary and when appropriate without notice, all arms and related materiel regardless of location, and advise the CAR authorities on efforts to keep armed groups from exploiting natural resources; (c) To support the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013) in collecting information about acts of incitement to violence, in particular on an ethnic or religious basis, that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR in accordance with paragraph 32 (g) of resolution 2399 (2018) extended by paragraph 3 of resolution 2454 (2019); (d) To ensure, with all relevant United Nations bodies, unhindered access and safety for the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), in particular to persons, documents and sites within their control in order for the Panel to execute its mandate; (e) To provide transport for relevant CAR authorities as appropriate and on a case by case basis and when the situation allows, as a means to promote and support the extension of the State authority over the entire territory;
Mission effectiveness 35. Requests the Secretary-General to deploy and allocate personnel and expertise within MINUSCA to reflect the priorities identified by paragraph 32 to paragraph 34 of this resolution, and to continuously adjust this deployment according to the progresses made in the implementation of this mandate; 36. Reiterates its concern at the continuing lack of key capabilities for MINUSCA and the need to fill gaps, in particular in the field of military helicopters, as well as the importance of current and future troop and police contributing countries (T/PCCs) providing troops and police with adequate capabilities, equipment and predeployment training in order to enhance the capacity of MINUSCA to operate effectively; 37. Recognizes that the effective implementation of peacekeeping mandates is the responsibility of all stakeholders and is contingent upon several critical factors, including well-defined, realistic, and achievable mandates, political will, leadership, performance and accountability at all levels, adequate resources, policy, planning, and operational guidelines, and training and equipment; 38. Welcomes the initiatives undertaken by the Secretary-General to standardize a culture of performance in UN peacekeeping, recalls its requests in resolution 2378 (2017) and resolution 2436 (2018) that the Secretary-General ensure that performance data related to the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations is used to improve mission operations, including decisions such as those regarding deployment, remediation, repatriation and incentives, and reaffirms its support for the development of a comprehensive and integrated performance policy framework that identifies clear standards of performance for evaluating all United Nations civilian and uniformed personnel working in and supporting peacekeeping operations that facilitates effective and full implementation of mandates, and includes comprehensive and objective methodologies based on clear and well-defined benchmarks to ensure accountability for underperformance and incentives and recognition for outstanding performance, and calls on the United Nations to apply this framework to MINUSCA as described in resolution 2436 (2018), in particular by investigating and taking immediate action following significant performance failures to implement the protection of civilians strategy, to include the rotation, repatriation, replacement or dismissal of the under-performing MINUSCA uniformed or civilian personnel, including mission leadership and mission support personnel, consistent with resolution 2436 (2018); notes the efforts of the Secretary-General to develop a comprehensive performance assessment system and requests the Secretary-General and the troop and police contributing countries to seek to increase the number of women in MINUSCA, as well as to ensure the full, effective and meaningful participation of women in all aspects of operations; 39. Commends the commitment of the T/PCCs in implementing the Mission’s mandate in a challenging environment, and in this connection highlights that undeclared national caveats, lack of effective command and control, refusal to obey orders, failure to respond to attacks on civilians, and inadequate equipment may adversely affect the shared responsibility for effective mandate implementation and should not be accepted by the Secretary-General; 40. Encourages MINUSCA to continue implementing the recommendations of the independent investigation led by Brigadier General Amoussou to improve MINUSCA’s response to protect civilians; 41. Requests the Secretary-General to implement a zero-tolerance policy on serious misconduct, sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, fraud, corruption, trafficking in natural resources or wildlife, including by making full use of the existing authority of the SRSG to ensure accountability of the Mission’s staff and through effective mission support arrangement, recalls its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2015/22 and its resolution 2272 (2016), further requests the SecretaryGeneral to take all necessary measures to ensure full compliance of all personnel in MINUSCA with the United Nations zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse and to keep the Council fully informed about the Mission’s progress in this regard, including by reporting on the start, agreed deadlines, and outcomes of 2272 reviews, and urges T/PCCs to take appropriate preventative action, including vetting of all personnel, predeployment and in-mission awareness training, timely investigations of allegations, as appropriate, and to take appropriate steps to hold perpetrators accountable and repatriate units when there is credible evidence of widespread or systematic sexual exploitation and abuse by those units; 42. Requests MINUSCA to consider the environmental impacts of its operations when fulfilling its mandated tasks and, in this context, to manage them as appropriate and in accordance with applicable and relevant General Assembly resolutions and United Nations rules and regulations;
Child protection 43. Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account child protection as a crosscutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR authorities in ensuring that the protection of children’s rights is taken into account, inter alia, in the DDRR and SRR processes in order to end and prevent violations and abuses against children;
Gender 44. Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account gender mainstreaming as a cross-cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR authorities in ensuring the full, effective and meaningful participation, involvement and representation of women, including survivors of sexual violence, in all spheres and at all levels, including in the political and reconciliation process and the implementation of the Peace Agreement, stabilization activities, transitional justice, the work of the SCC and of the Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation Commission, SSR and DDRR processes, the preparation and holding of the 2020/2021 elections through, inter alia, the provision of gender advisers;
Weapon and ammunition management 45. Requests MINUSCA to actively seize, record, dispose of, and destroy, as appropriate, weapons and ammunitions of disarmed combatants and armed groups who refuse or fail to lay down their arms and present an imminent threat to civilians or the stability of the State, in keeping with its efforts to seize and collect arms and any related material the supply, sale or transfer of which violate the measures imposed by paragraphs 1 and 2 of resolution 2488 (2019); 46. Calls upon the CAR authorities in coordination with MINUSCA, including UNMAS, and international partners to address the illicit transfer, destabilising accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons in the CAR, and to ensure the safe and effective management, storage and security of stockpiles of small arms and light weapons and the collection and/or destruction of surplus, seized, unmarked, or illicitly held weapons and ammunition, and further requests MINUSCA to provide technical assistance to the CAR authorities in the operationalisation of the “Commission nationale de lutte contre la prolifération des armes légères et de petit calibre”;
MINUSCA Freedom of movement 47. Urges all parties in the CAR to cooperate fully with the deployment and activities of MINUSCA, in particular by ensuring its safety, security and freedom of movement with unhindered and immediate access throughout the territory of the CAR to enable MINUSCA to carry out fully its mandate in a complex environment; 48. Calls upon Member States, especially those in the region, to ensure the free, unhindered and expeditious movement to and from the CAR of all personnel, as well as equipment, provisions, supplies and other goods, including vehicles and spare parts, which are for the exclusive and official use of MINUSCA;
Humanitarian access and humanitarian appeal 49. Demands that all parties allow and facilitate the full, safe, immediate and unhindered access for the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need, in particular to internally displaced persons, throughout the territory of the CAR, in accordance with the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance and relevant provisions of international law; 50. Further demands that all parties ensure respect and protection of all medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities; 51. Calls on Member States and international and regional organisations to respond swiftly to the humanitarian needs identified in the humanitarian response plan through increased contributions and to ensure that all pledges are honoured in full and in a timely manner;
Support to MINUSCA 52. Authorises French armed forces, within the provisions of their existing bilateral agreement with the CAR and the limits of their capacities and areas of deployment, at the request of the Secretary-General, to use all the means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA when under serious threat, from the date of adoption of this resolution, and requests France to ensure reporting to the Council on the implementation of this mandate and to coordinate its reporting with that of the Secretary-General referred to in paragraph 54 of this resolution;
Reports by the Secretary-General 53. Requests the Secretary-General to review and report on a regular basis the conditions required for the transition, drawdown and withdrawal of the United Nations operation, in a manner which does not prejudice overall efforts to support long term objectives for peace and stability; 54. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council on 15 February 2020, 15 June 2020 and 10 October 2020, including on: – the situation in the CAR, including the security situation, the priority political elements as defined above regarding the political process, including as set out in paragraph 13 of this resolution, and the implementation of the Peace Agreement, progress on mechanisms and capacity to advance governance and fiscal management, and relevant information on the progress, promotion and protection of human rights and international humanitarian law and on the protection of civilians; – the status of the implementation of MINUSCA’s mandated tasks, including support to non-United Nations security forces in strict compliance with the HRDDP, including by providing appropriate financial information; – force and police generation and deployment of all MINUSCA’s constituent elements, and information on the progress in the implementation of the measures taken to improve MINUSCA’s performance, including measures to ensure force effectiveness as outlined in paragraphs 35 to 42; 55. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

Topics
Central African Republic
Year
2019
Title
The situation in the Central African Republic
Related with resolutions
2127 2272 2378 2399 2436 2454 2488
Quoted in resolutions
2507
Security Council Composition
CHN FRA RUS GBR USA CIV GNQ KWT PER POL BEL DOM DEU IDN ZAF