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Resolution 2151

The maintenance of international peace and security: Security sector reform: challenges and opportunities


S/RES/2151 (2014)
Distr.: General 28 April 2014
Resolution 2151 (2014)
adopted by the Security Council at its 7161st meeting, on 28 April 2014
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security,
Stressing that reforming the security sector in post-conflict environments is critical to the consolidation of peace and stability, promoting poverty reduction, rule of law and good governance, extending legitimate State authority, and preventing countries from relapsing into conflict, and further stressing that, in this regard, a professional, effective and accountable security sector and accessible and impartial law-enforcement and justice sectors are equally necessary to laying the foundations for peace and sustainable development,
Recalling the sovereign right and the primary responsibility of the country concerned to determine the national approach and priorities of security sector reform and recognizing that it should be a nationally owned process that is rooted in the particular needs and conditions of the country in question and encouraging the development of expertise in the field of security sector reform at the national level,
Recognizing that the political leadership and political will of national authorities are critical for the progress of security sector reform and reaffirming the lead role of national authorities in developing an inclusive national vision for security sector reform, coordinating the implementation of the vision, dedicating national resources towards national security institutions, and monitoring the impact of the security sector reform process,
Recalling the statements by its President of 21 February 2007 (S/PRST/2007/3), 12 May 2008 (S/PRST/2008/14) and 12 October 2011 (S/PRST/2011/19), and noting with appreciation the report of the Secretary-General entitled “Securing States and societies: strengthening the United Nations comprehensive support to security sector reform” (S/2013/480) of 13 August 2013,
Recalling reports of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations of the General Assembly, which have provided guidance to the United Nations Secretariat on the subject of security sector reform and the development of a United Nations approach to security sector reform,
Expressing concern at the range of challenges that weak and dysfunctional security institutions pose, including impairing the ability of the State to extend public security and rule of law within its boundaries, and noting that good governance and oversight of the security sector is important in ensuring that security institutions are capable of protecting the population, and further noting that failure to address operational and accountability deficits can undermine the positive gains of peacekeeping and necessitates the return of peacekeeping and special political missions in previous areas of operation and recognizing that effective security sector reform processes have been an important element of the stabilization and reconstruction of some post-conflict countries,
Reaffirming that an effective, professional and accountable security sector without discrimination and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law is the cornerstone of peace and sustainable development and is important for conflict prevention,
Recalling that the bulk of Security Council-mandated United Nations assistance in the area of security sector reform takes place in, and is directed to, countries in Africa and that a number of African countries are becoming important providers of such assistance,
Noting the support provided by bilateral actors, as well as regional actors, including the European Union, to security sector reform efforts and other initiatives in the area of security sector reform, in particular in Africa, and stressing the importance of coordination as appropriate between the different actors involved in supporting security sector reforms through bilateral contributions and emphasizing the role United Nations peacekeeping operations or special political missions can play in enhancing this coordination,
Recognizing the centrality of security sector reform as a key element of peacekeeping and special political mission mandates, noting the increasing number and complexity of mission mandates on security sector reform, and emphasizing the importance of the United Nations, including through its peacekeeping operations and special political missions, supporting national Governments, upon their request where appropriate, to develop security institutions that are accessible and responsive to the needs of their population, and the important role of the Peacebuilding Commission and the Peacebuilding Fund in supporting security sector reform,
Recalling the important role that the United Nations has played in supporting national efforts to build sustainable security institutions, and commending the efforts of the United Nations, in particular the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, including the Security Sector Reform Unit and the United Nations
Inter-Agency Security Sector Reform Task Force, in further strengthening a comprehensive United Nations approach to security sector reform, through the development of guidance and civilian capacities, coordination mechanisms, and collaboration with regional and subregional organizations, in particular the African Union,
Underlining the importance of the close coordination of the range of United Nations Security Sector Reform activities, both at headquarters and in the field, in particular between Security Council-mandated missions and the United Nations Country Team, as appropriate, and encouraging relevant United Nations entities mandated for security sector reform activities to work through the existing coordination mechanisms, as appropriate,
Acknowledging the necessity for the United Nations to balance its support for the reform of individual components of the security sector, which in some contexts include defence, police, corrections, and border and immigration services, with sector-wide initiatives that address strategic governance, management and oversight aspects in order to ensure their long-term sustainability based on the particular needs and conditions of the country in question,
Reiterating the importance of the rule of law as one of the key elements of conflict prevention, peacekeeping, conflict resolution and peacebuilding and reiterating the statement by its President of 21 February 2014 (S/PRST/2014/5), and recalling that security sector reform must take place within a broad framework of the rule of law, and noting in this regard the contribution that effective, professional and accountable police services, that provide security to the population, can make in building trust between State authorities and communities and restoring the rule of law in post-conflict countries,
Reaffirming its commitment to address the impact of armed conflict on women and children, and recalling its resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013) and 2122 (2013) on women, peace and security, resolutions 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), 1674 (2006), 1738 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, as well as resolutions 1261 (1999), 1612 (2005), 1882 (2009), 1998 (2011), 2068 (2012) and 2143 (2014) on children and armed conflict,
Recognizing that security sector reform constitutes a key element of the political processes of States recovering from conflict and of the strengthening of the rule of law institutions,
Recognizing the interlinkages between security sector reform and other important factors of stabilization and reconstruction, such as, but not limited to, transitional justice, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration as well as long-term rehabilitation of former combatants including in particular women and children, national small arms and light weapons management, arms embargo implementation, reduction of armed violence, organized crime and anti-corruption measures, protection of civilians, including in particular women and children, as well as gender equality and human rights issues,
1. Reaffirms the importance of security sector reform in the stabilization and reconstruction of States in the aftermath of conflict and resolves to continue to include and prioritise, as appropriate, security sector reform aspects as an integral part of the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions;
2. Reiterates the centrality of national ownership for security sector reform processes, and further reiterates the responsibility of the country concerned in the determination of security sector reform assistance, where appropriate, and recognizes the importance of considering the perspectives of the host countries in the formulation of relevant mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions;
3. Encourages Member States undertaking reform to take the lead in defining an inclusive national vision on security sector reform, informed by the needs and aspirations of the population, and acknowledges the important role of the United Nations, including its Peacebuilding Commission, and Member States, regional and subregional organizations in assisting States in this regard;
4. Recognizes that security sector reform needs to be in support of, and informed by, broader national political processes, inclusive of all segments of the society, including the participation of civil society, that lay the foundations for stability and peace through national dialogue and reconciliation efforts, and resolves to link security sector reform to such efforts;
5. Stresses that security sector reform is critical to addressing impunity for violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, where applicable, and contributes to the rule of law;
6. Encourages Member States, when undertaking security sector reforms, to mainstream child protection, such as the inclusion of child protection in military training and standard operating procedures, as well as in military guidance as appropriate, the establishment of child protection units in national security forces, of effective age assessment mechanisms to prevent underage recruitment, of vetting mechanisms to ensure that those responsible for violations and abuses against children are not included in the ranks of national security forces and of measures to protect schools and hospitals from attack and to prevent the military use of schools in contravention of applicable international law;
7. Stresses the importance of security sector reform, which better integrates policing, defence, border management and security, maritime security, civil protection, and other relevant functions, including through the development of professional, accessible, and accountable policing capabilities that strengthen community resilience, as well as the institutions responsible for their oversight and management, and urges the effective integration as regards sector-wide and component levels of United Nations support both at headquarters and in the field, as appropriate;
8. Stresses the importance of the relevant bodies of the United Nations undertaking mission planning processes for security sector reform, where mandated, that gives full consideration to supporting national security sector reform efforts, taking into account the specific needs of the host country, and collaborating with other relevant international and regional actors providing security sector reform assistance to the national government;
9. Underlines the importance of strengthening support for sector-wide initiatives that aim to enhance the governance and overall performance of the security sector and address the foundations upon which security institutions in each component area are built, such as through support to national security dialogues; national security sector reviews and mappings; national security policy and strategy; national security legislation; national security sector plans; security sector public expenditure reviews; and national security oversight, management and coordination;
10. Underlines that the management of a transition from a peacekeeping operation or special political mission in relation to its security sector reform activities should be based upon a timely analysis, in consultation with the host country, of any assistance beyond the duration of the mandate to enable peacebuilding and development actors to undertake the necessary strategic planning and fundraising, working in close partnership with the national authorities, and to transfer skills and expertise to host country officials and experts as quickly as possible in order to ensure a successful and durable transition;
11. Notes that the United Nations is particularly well positioned to support and coordinate sector-wide reforms as necessary in specific situations and has broad experience as well as comparative advantages in this area working in close collaboration with relevant international and regional actors, and encourages Member States to continue to be engaged and to facilitate strategic discussions on strengthening the United Nations approach in this critical area, including through the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations of the General Assembly and the Peacebuilding Commission;
12. Notes the important role that United Nations police can play in supporting, and coordinating international support for, reform of national police institutions and building police capacity in a comprehensive way that emphasizes a community-oriented approach and inter alia builds strong governance, oversight and accountability mechanisms within the framework of a functional judicial and corrections system;
13. Recognizes the need for the United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions with relevant mandates and the Inter-Agency Security Sector Reform Task Force to further strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of United Nations security sector reform initiatives with the aim of ensuring the effectiveness, coordination and coherence of the support provided by the United Nations to national Governments;
14. Encourages Member States to provide voluntary support to security sector reform efforts, including at a sector-wide level, in accordance with the priorities set forth by national authorities;
15. Resolves to continue to promote the role of the United Nations Secretariat in supporting security sector reform, and requests the Secretary-General to consider undertaking the following in the context of relevant country-specific mandates:
(a) Strengthen the comprehensive approach of the United Nations in security sector reform;
(b) Develop additional guidance for relevant United Nations officials, including for Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and Envoys, and assist relevant senior United Nations management to understand how to deliver mandated security sector reform tasks;
(c) Encourage the Secretary-General’s Special Representatives and Envoys to fully take into account the strategic value of security sector reform in their work, including through their good offices, where mandated;
(d) Highlight in his regular reports to the Security Council on specific United Nations operations mandated by the Security Council, updates on progress of security sector reform, where mandated, in order to improve Security Council oversight of security sector reform activities;
(e) Continue to develop integrated technical guidance notes and related training modules, as well as other tools as appropriate, to promote coherent and coordinated United Nations support to security sector reform, and develop modalities for joint delivery of assistance to national reform efforts;
(f) Ensure that assistance related to security sector reform takes into account the operation of Security Council-mandated arms embargoes, where applicable, including the availability of exemptions to such embargoes specifically intended to support security sector reform;
16. Underlines the importance of partnerships and cooperation with regional and subregional arrangements and organizations, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, and in supporting security sector reform, as well as fostering greater regional engagement;
17. Encourages the Secretary-General to continue to promote cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, consistent with the framework agreement for the 10-year capacity-building programme for the African Union, towards its efforts to strengthen its continent-wide policy framework for security sector reform, informed by and in support of the African Peace and Security Architecture, and further encourages all partners to continue to assist the African Union in building its capacities in this regard;
18. Reiterates the importance of sharing experiences and expertise on security sector reform among Members States and regional and subregional organizations, and in this regard encourages a deepening of South-South exchange and cooperation;
19. Underscores the importance of women’s equal and effective participation and full involvement in all stages of the security sector reform process, given their vital role in the prevention and resolution of conflict and peacebuilding, and in strengthening civilian protection measures in security services, including the provision of adequate training for security personnel, the inclusion of more women in the security sector, and effective vetting processes in order to exclude perpetrators of sexual violence from the security sector;
20. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

International Peace and Security, UN Peacekeeping
The maintenance of international peace and security: Security sector reform: challenges and opportunities
Related with resolutions
1261 1265 1296 1325 1612 1674 1738 1820 1882 1888 1894 1960 1998 2068 2106 2122 2143
Quoted in resolutions
2155 2185 2187 2206 2223 2241 2252 2290 2382 2447 2553
Security Council Composition