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Resolution 2457

Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in maintaining international peace and security - Silencing the guns in Africa

Abstract

S/RES/2457 (2019)
Security Council Distr.: General 27 February 2019
Resolution 2457 (2019)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 8473rd meeting, on 27 February 2019
The Security Council, Reaffirming its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security as well as its commitment to uphold the Purposes and Principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Recalling that the prevention of conflict remains a primary responsibility of States, and further recalling their responsibility to protect civilians and to respect human rights, as provided for by relevant international law, and further reaffirming the responsibility of each individual State to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity, Recalling in this regard its previous Presidential Statements and resolutions concerning the various factors and causes that play a role in triggering, worsening or prolonging conflicts in Africa, Expressing concern over conflicts in different geographic areas, and reiterating that the United Nations’ cooperation with regional and subregional organizations is critical to contributing to the prevention of the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of conflict, in line with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, Noting that Africa still faces enormous challenges, including: governance deficits, economic difficulties, high rates of unemployment, the mismanagement of ethnic diversity, competition over power and resources, state fragility and weak state institutions, ungoverned spaces which leave room for illegal activities, the continued flow of weapons into the continent and their illicit circulation, mercenary activity, insurgencies and rebellions, inadequate border monitoring and control that facilitates transnational organized crime, illicit exploitation of natural resources, continued crisis that precipitate irregular migration, corruption, illicit financial flows which facilitate funding for illegal activities, climate change and natural disasters, and slow processes in the ratification of AU instruments and policies, Reaffirming the need to address the multidimensional nature of peace and security challenges facing African countries emerging from conflict, and emphasizing the importance of a comprehensive and integrated approach for peace building and sustaining peace, with a view to preventing them from relapsing into conflict,
Gravely concerned that the illicit trade, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons in many regions of the world, including Africa, continue to pose threats to international peace and security, cause significant loss of life, contribute to instability and insecurity, Recalling in this regard all international, regional and subregional instruments addressing the illicit trade, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons in Africa, including the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Lights Weapons in All Its Aspects, and its relevant resolutions, which contribute to conflict prevention in Africa, Noting that in some armed conflict situations, the illicit exploitation, trafficking, and illicit trade of natural resources has contributed to the outbreak, escalation or continuation of such conflicts and further noting the resolutions adopted and sanctions measures taken on this issue to support the prevention of illegal exploitation of natural resources, particularly timber, so-called “conflict minerals” like tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold, as well as diamonds, cobalt, charcoal and wildlife from fueling armed conflicts, and encouraging the AU member states to promote the transparent and lawful management of natural resources, including the adoption of government revenue targets to finance development, sustainable regulatory and customs frameworks, and responsible mineral sourcing supply chain due diligence, Noting that the African Union is implementing an institutional reform agenda aimed at ensuring greater effectiveness and efficiency and further noting the potential of these reforms to strengthen the African Union and allow the organization to partner more effectively with the United Nations in addressing the peace and security challenges on the continent, Noting the measures so far taken and in course towards the implementation of the goal of Silencing the Guns in Africa by the African Union as well as other relevant stakeholders, and further noting the adoption, implementation and reporting on the African Union Master Roadmap of Practical Steps to Silence the Guns in Africa by Year 2020, in the context of the simultaneous implementation of the African Peace and Security Architecture and the African Governance Architecture, Welcoming the decision by the African Union Peace and Security Council to declare September of each year until 2020 Africa Amnesty Month for the surrender of illegally owned weapons and arms, Noting that achieving the goal of Silencing the Guns in Africa will contribute significantly to saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war, and further noting that the African Union’s efforts as outlined in its Agenda 2063 to ensure an integrated, peaceful, secure and prosperous Africa and lay a solid foundation for inclusive growth and sustainable development is closely aligned with the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Noting the aspirations of peace, security and stability in Africa and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) constitute shared priorities as outlined in the two Joint United Nations-African Union Frameworks for Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security, Africa’s Agenda 2063, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Reaffirming the importance of supporting the African Union Agenda 2063, as a strategic vision and an action plan for ensuring a positive socioeconomic transformation in Africa by 2063, and acknowledges the emphasis in Agenda 2063 on peace and security as critical enablers for sustainable development,
Taking note of the African Union's continued efforts to operationalize its policy on post-conflict reconstruction and development (PCRD), including its relevant initiatives particularly the African Solidarity Initiative (ASI) and further takes note of the decisions of the Assembly AU/Dec.351(XVI) of January 2011 and AU/Dec.710 (XXXI) of June 2018 on the establishment of the African Union Center for Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development (AU-PCRD) in Cairo, Recalling the discussion that took place during the 12th annual consultation between members of the United Nations Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council on 19 July 2018 on the African Union’s goal of Silencing the Guns in Africa by the year 2020, and the exchange of views on possible cooperation in the implementation of the AU Master Roadmap of Practical Steps to Silence the Guns in Africa by the Year 2020, Recalling resolutions 2320 (2016) and 2378 (2017), acknowledging the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for African Union-led peace support operations authorized by the Security Council and utilized pursuant to Chapter VIII of the Charter, Welcoming the progress made on the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union, which has been characterized by closer collaboration, joint field visits by senior officials, more regular exchanges of information, deeper consultations, increasingly coordinated action, and greater collaboration between the Secretariat and the Commission, 1. Welcomes the African Union’s determination to rid Africa of conflicts and create conditions favorable for the growth, development and integration of the continent as encapsulated in its goal of Silencing the Guns in Africa by the Year 2020 and its Master Roadmap outlining practical steps that underpin the actions necessary for its attainment of the goal of a conflict-free Africa by 2020; 2. Takes note of the African Union’s effort to advance Africa’s political, social and economic integration agenda and to the ideal of pan-Africanism and African renaissance, as well as the pledge to “end all wars in Africa by 2020” and “achieve the goal of a conflict-free Africa”, as affirmed in the solemn declaration adopted on 26 May 2013 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the Organization of African Unity/African Union, and expresses its readiness to contribute, and calls upon all, in particular relevant United Nations entities, as appropriate, to help to achieve this goal; 3. Acknowledges that the building of a conflict free Africa essentially rests on the African Union, its Member States, their people and their institutions, including their civil society and expresses support for initiatives aimed at finding African solutions to African problems, while also recognizing the need for international cooperation and partnership to help accelerate progress towards the realization of this continental goal; 4. Takes note of the ongoing efforts of the African Union and the subregional organizations, within the framework of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) to strengthen their capacity and undertake peace support operations in the continent, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, particularly the African Standby Force and its Rapid Deployment Capability, and encourages the UN Secretariat and the African Union Commission to collaborate towards strengthening the APSA by supporting the APSA road map and silencing the guns master roadmap and their respective work plans; 5. Takes note of the efforts by the African Union on combating the transnational threats of terrorism in Africa consistent with international human rights law, international refugee law, international humanitarian law and taking into account
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gender perspectives; underscores the need for a sustained, cooperative and coordinated approach to countering terrorism, and, in this regard, welcomes the ongoing cooperation with the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) and notes the engagement by the Office of Counter-Terrorism with African Union counterparts on collaboration and capacity-building support in relation to counterterrorism and countering violent extremism conducive to terrorism in the context of the joint UN-AU framework for enhanced partnership in the area of peace and security; 6. Expresses concern over the challenging security situation in parts of Africa, notably threats posed by terrorism, maritime piracy, tensions between pastoralists and farmer communities, subversive mercenary activities, transnational organized crime, which can include illicit trafficking in persons, arms, drugs, and natural resources, and the persistent violence perpetrated by insurgents, rebel, and armed groups, and, in this regard, encourages enhancement of border control, management, and cooperation measures; 7. Emphasizes the valuable contribution of African Union’s mediation capacities, and of regional and subregional organizations, to ensuring the coherence, synergy and collective effectiveness of their efforts, and encourages greater cooperation and collaboration with the Secretary-General’s High-Level Advisory Board on Mediation in the prevention and resolution of conflicts in Africa, including the possibility of fielding of joint mediation teams in response to conflict and crisis situation in the continent; 8. Encourages the United Nations and the African Union to strengthen their efforts to coordinate their engagement in a mutually supportive manner, across the range of possible responses to conflict – from prevention and mediation to peacekeeping and peacebuilding to post-conflict recovery and development in line with their joint framework for enhanced partnership in peace and security particularly in ensuring effective implementation of peace agreements by warring parties to conflict, and in this regard, stresses the need to continue enhancing strategic dialogue, partnerships, more regular exchange of views, analyses and information at the working level to build capacities in relation to the preventive diplomacy tools, invigorate and engage potential and existing capacities and capabilities, particularly through United Nations regional political offices, contribute to the coherence and integration of their preventive diplomacy efforts, inter alia, through mediation and the Secretary-General’s Good Offices, as appropriate; 9. Underscores the importance of the two joint UN-AU partnership frameworks in galvanizing concrete and practical system and commission wide support towards helping Africa make tangible progress towards achieving its goal of creating a conflict free continent and expresses its readiness to support the implementation of the African Union Master Roadmap of Practical Steps to Silence the Guns in Africa by year 2020; 10. Acknowledges the memorandum of understanding signed between the United Nations and the African Union to strengthen cooperation in support of efforts aimed at peacebuilding and sustaining peace in Africa; reaffirms the primary responsibility of national governments and authorities in identifying, driving and directing priorities, strategies and activities for peacebuilding and sustaining peace; emphasizes the importance of partnership and cooperation between the United Nations and relevant regional and subregional organizations, including the African Union, to improve cooperation and coordination in peacebuilding, to increase synergies and ensure the coherence and complementarity of such efforts, and in this regard, welcomes the holding of regular exchanges of views, joint initiatives, and information sharing between the Peacebuilding Support Office and the African Union
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Commission and the African Union Peace and Security Council and encourages the Peacebuilding Commission to hold exchanges of views, as appropriate, with relevant regional and subregional organizations, including the African Union in line with resolutions 1645 (2005) and 2282 (2016); 11. Notes the importance of consultations between the Security Council and the AU Peace and Security Council in their respective decision making processes and common strategies for a holistic response to conflict, as appropriate, based on respective comparative advantage, burden sharing, joint analysis and planning missions and assessment visits by the UN and AU, monitoring and evaluation, transparency and accountability, to address common security challenges in Africa in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, including Chapter VIII and the Purposes and principles; 12. Welcomes the African Union decision to reaffirm Africa as a nuclear free zone and stresses the need for full implementation of existing international, regional and subregional instruments addressing the illicit trade, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons in Africa, including, the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, and its relevant resolutions, which contribute to conflict prevention in Africa; 13. Underlines the need for effective implementation of relevant arms control and disarmament instruments and regimes as well as arm embargoes imposed by the United Nations Security Council and welcomes efforts to assist Member States as well as intergovernmental, regional and subregional organizations such as the African Union in capacity-building to prevent and address the illicit trade in, and destabilizing accumulation and misuse of, small arms and light weapons, and encourages African states to safeguard national stockpiles of weapons to prevent their illicit diversion; 14. Notes the UN partnership with the AU in the field of peacekeeping, including by supporting the AU’s efforts to develop AU policy, guidance and training in particular in the areas of security sector reform, post-conflict reconstruction and development, women, peace and security, and youth, peace and security; 15. Reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding as well as in post-conflict situations, as recognized in relevant Security Council resolutions including 1325 (2000) and resolution 2242 (2015) and welcomes in this regard the roles of “FemWise-Africa”, Network of African Women in Conflict Prevention and Mediation and the African Women Leaders Network (AWLN), emphasizes also the need for joint action between the UN and AU to end sexual violence in armed conflict and post-conflict situations, stresses the importance of the full implementation of the measures for the prevention and response to Conflict-related Sexual Violence in relevant Security Council resolutions and welcomes the Secretary-General’s continued efforts to implement and reinforce the United Nations zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse; 16. Reaffirms the important and positive contribution of youth to the efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security and the role young people play in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, and as a key aspect of the sustainability, inclusiveness and success of peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts, as well as in post-conflict situations and It also encourages all those involved in the planning for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration to consider the needs of youth affected by armed conflict, including the problem of youth unemployment in the continent, by investing in building young person’s capabilities and skills to meet labor demands through relevant education opportunities designed in a manner which promotes a culture of peace;
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17. Recognizes in particular that a strong focus is needed on combatting poverty, deprivation and inequality to prevent and protect children from all violations and abuses in particular in the context of armed conflict and to promote the resilience of children, their families and their communities, and the importance of promoting education for all and peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development and further emphasizes the importance of giving due consideration to child protection issues from the early stages of all peace processes, in particular the integration of child protection provisions, as well as of peace agreements that put strong emphasis on the best interest of the child, the treatment of children separated from armed groups as victims and focus on family and community-based reintegration; 18. Recognizes the adverse effects of climate change, ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, on the stability of a number of AU Member States, including through drought, desertification, land degradation and food insecurity, and emphasizes the need for adequate risk assessment and risk management strategies by the respective governments and the United Nations relating to these factors; 19. Calls upon AU Member States to enhance good governance, including the elimination of corruption, strengthening of democratic institutions, respect for human rights, and accountability and to redouble their efforts in economic development and the promotion of the well-being of their people with a view to addressing the root causes of conflicts and laying a solid foundation for durable peace and stability; and further encourages all AU member states to sign, ratify and domesticate all AU initiatives related to the promotion of democracy, human rights and good governance and promote universal application through the continent as requested in the latest AU Summit communique regarding the implementation of the Silencing the Guns Agenda in the continent; 20. Reaffirms its determination to take action against illicit exploitation and trafficking of natural resources and high-value commodities in areas where it contributes to the outbreak, escalation or continuation of armed conflict in Africa and encourages AU Member States to strengthen their regulatory mechanisms on the exploitation and management of natural resources and to ensure that the proceeds from these resources are utilized in meeting the basic needs of their people, with a view to promoting equitable development and distribution of benefits; 21. Reiterates its intention to consider steps that can be taken to enhance practical cooperation with the African Union in the promotion and maintenance of peace and security in Africa in line with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter; 22. Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, when appropriate, to provide updates on implementation measures towards enhancing the support of the United Nations and its agencies to the African Union in the implementation of Vision 2020 to Silence the Guns in Africa, including as part of his Report on Strengthening the Partnership between the United Nations and the African Union on Issues of Peace and Security in Africa.

Topics
Africa, International Peace and Security, Security Council Procedures
Year
2019
Title
Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in maintaining international peace and security - Silencing the guns in Africa
Related with resolutions
1325 1645 2242 2282 2320 2378
Security Council Composition
CHN FRA RUS GBR USA CIV GNQ KWT PER POL BEL DOM DEU IDN ZAF