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Resolution 2531

The situation in Mali. Letter from the President of the Council on the voting outcome (S/2020/613) and voting details (S/2020/625)

Abstract

Security Council Distr.: General 29 June 2020
Resolution 2531 (2020)
Adopted by the Security Council on 29 June 2020
The Security Council, Recalling all its previous resolutions, statements of its President and press statements on the situation in Mali, Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Mali, emphasizing that the Malian authorities have primary responsibility for the provision of stability, security and protection of civilians throughout the territory of Mali, urging the Malian authorities to uphold their efforts to meet their obligations in that regard, and expressing great concern at the violent and unilateral actions taken by non-State actors hampering the return of State authority and basic social services, Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned, and recalling its Presidential Statement of 14 May 2018 (S/PRST/2018/10), Expressing grave concern about the continued deterioration of the security and humanitarian situation in Mali, including through the persistence of a high level of attacks by terrorist groups in the North and in the Centre, and the continuation of intercommunal violence in the Centre, which led to human rights violations and abuses and have caused the loss of numerous innocent lives as well as numerous internally displaced persons and refugees in neighbouring countries, people in critical need of assistance and children without access to education due to school closures, and have hindered humanitarian access, expressing concern over the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the significant ongoing food crisis in Mali, and further expressing deep concern that the situation in Mali negatively impacts that of neighbouring countries and of the Sahel region, Emphasizing that security and stability in Mali are inextricably linked to that of the Sahel and West Africa, as well as to that of Libya and North Africa, Strongly condemning the continued attacks against civilians, representatives from local, regional and State institutions, as well as national, international and UN security forces, including the Malian Defence and Security Forces (MDSF), the G5 Sahel joint force (FC-G5S), the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), the French forces and the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali), paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifices made by the soldiers engaged in Mali and the Sahel, especially to those who lost their lives, and calling for continuing support to the MDSF in their fight against terrorism, Underlining that lasting peace and security in the Sahel region will not be achieved without a combination of political, security and development efforts benefitting all regions of Mali, as well as the full, effective and inclusive implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali (“the Agreement”), which involves all Malian actors supportive of the peace process and ensures full, effective and meaningful participation of women and youth, Recognizing that an integrated and coherent approach among relevant political, security and developmental actors, within and outside of the United Nations system, consistent with their respective mandates, is critical to building and sustaining peace in Mali and the Sahel, and recalling the objectives of the United Nations Integrated Strategy for the Sahel, Welcoming the Pau Summit of 13 January 2020 and the creation of a “Coalition for the Sahel”, aimed at fighting against terrorism, strengthening the Sahelian States’ military capabilities, supporting the restoration of State authority throughout the territory, and bolstering development assistance, further welcoming the set-up of the Takuba Task Force, and of the Partnership for Security and Stability in the Sahel, as well as increased engagement from the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States, and welcoming, in this regard, the initiative to deploy an African Union-led force in the Sahel, Recognizing that some progress was made during the past six months in the implementation of the Agreement, and that a combination of some level of political will and international pressure, including through the prospect of sanctions, constituted important factors in securing this progress and underlining that MINUSMA, along with the other security presences mentioned in resolution 2480 (2019), significantly contributes to the implementation of the Agreement and to the stabilization of Mali, Expressing a significant sense of impatience with parties over the persistent delays in the full implementation of key provisions of the Agreement, noting that protracted delays in implementation contribute to a political and security vacuum jeopardizing the stability and development of Mali as well as the viability of the Agreement, and stressing the need for increased ownership and prioritization in the implementation of the Agreement, Underlining that engaging in hostilities in violation of the Agreement as well as actions taken that obstruct, or that obstruct by prolonged delay, or that threaten the implementation of the Agreement constitute a basis for sanctions designations pursuant to resolution 2374 (2017), among other designation criteria, Noting the Stratégie de stabilisation du centre du Mali by the Malian authorities as well as other initiatives aimed at addressing the situation in Central Mali, and stressing that stabilization of the situation there requires the Malian authorities and relevant stakeholders to implement this strategy by pursuing simultaneous progress on security, governance, development, reconciliation, accountability, as well as protection and promotion of human rights, Welcoming the holding of the national inclusive dialogue which was a significant step in building consensus on key political and institutional reforms, and further welcoming the increased representation of women in the National Assembly,
Strongly condemning all violations and abuses of international human rights law and violations of international humanitarian law, including those involving extrajudicial and summary executions, arbitrary arrests and detentions and illtreatment of prisoners, sexual and gender-based violence, and trafficking in persons, as well as killing, maiming, recruitment and use of children, attacks against schools, humanitarian actors and services, and medical personnel and infrastructure identified as such, and calling upon all parties to bring an end to such violations and abuses and to comply with their obligations under applicable international law, Reiterating, in this regard, the importance of holding accountable all those responsible for such acts and that some of such acts referred to in the paragraph above may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute, taking note that, acting upon the referral of the transitional authorities of Mali dated 13 July 2012, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) opened on 16 January 2013 an investigation into alleged crimes committed on the territory of Mali since January 2012, and further taking note of the finalization of the work of the International Commission of Inquiry established in accordance with the Agreement and as requested by resolution 2364 (2017), Emphasizing the need for adequate risk assessment and risk management strategies, by the Government of Mali and the United Nations, of ecological changes, natural disasters, drought, desertification, land degradation, food insecurity, energy access, climate change, among other factors, on the security and stability of Mali, Commending troop- and police-contributing countries of MINUSMA for their contribution, paying tribute to the peacekeepers who risk, as well as lost, their lives in this respect, Welcoming MINUSMA’s efforts to implement its adaptation plan, with a view to integrating all mission components and increasing its protected mobility, agility and flexibility, and therefore improving its support to the implementation of the Agreement, to the stabilization and restoration of State authority in the Centre and enhancing protection of civilians, notably by setting-up a Mobile Task Force, Expressing concern over reports of some training and capabilities shortfalls of MINUSMA units, undeclared caveats, non-compliance with orders, and emphasizing the importance of transparency and accountability of the mission’s performance, Recognizing that, in light of the specific and challenging environment in which it is deployed, MINUSMA interacts with other security presences which have the potential to be mutually beneficial instruments to restore peace and stability in Mali and the Sahel region, Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General (S/2020/476) and the letter of the Secretary-General (S/2020/481), Determining that the situation in Mali continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security, Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
Implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali 1. Urges the Government of Mali and the Plateforme and Coordination armed groups (“the Malian parties”) to continue to accelerate the implementation of the Agreement, through significant, meaningful and irreversible measures to be taken on an urgent basis; 2. Welcomes the important steps taken in the fulfilment of some of the priority measures of the Agreement referenced in paragraph 4 of resolution 2480 (2019) but regrets that several of them have not been fully implemented, and recalls its readiness to respond with measures pursuant to resolution 2374 (2017) should the parties engage in hostilities in violation of the Agreement, take actions that obstruct, or that obstruct by prolonged delay, or that threaten the implementation of the Agreement; 3. Urges the Malian parties to take immediate and concrete action, in a spirit of genuine cooperation, to fulfil the following priority measures before the end of MINUSMA’s current mandate: – achieve significant results towards the completion of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of the signatory armed groups and in the operationalization of the reconstituted, reformed and inclusive MDSF, notably by vetting, integrating in the MDSF and training at least 2,000 members of the signatory armed groups, in addition to the already integrated ones, redeploying all the integrated elements who underwent the accelerated disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process to the North following appropriate consultations between Malian parties with regards to the composition of the reconstituted units, and entrusting these units with concrete tasks, such as patrols, – ensure the completion of the constitutional reform, in accordance with the conclusions of the national inclusive dialogue, and of institutional reforms envisioned by the Agreement, in particular: (i) resolve outstanding issues for the holding of the election of Regional Assemblies, Cercle Councils and Commune Councils by direct universal suffrage, (ii) create a second parliamentary chamber, (iii) set-up a timeline for the transfer of decentralized State services and 30 per cent of State revenues to local authorities in their areas of competence and complete this transfer, (iv) complete the legal framework for the regional territorial police force and start its effective recruitment which should comprise a significant number of former members of the signatory armed groups, and (v) fully establish newly created electoral districts, including Ménaka and Taoudenni as regions, and the proposed Cercles and Communes, and hold legislative elections in these areas, – continue the operationalization of the Northern Development Zone through the establishment of the interregional advisory council and capacity building initiatives and engagement with diverse groups, and implement a pilot project in each of the five regions of Northern Mali, following appropriate consultations, with a view to swiftly delivering peace dividends to the population, and to further prioritize other interventions of the Sustainable Development Fund, – implement the recommendations of the high-level workshop on participation of women in the mechanisms established by the Agreement to support and monitor its implementation, by increasing the representation of women in the Comité de suivi de l’Accord (CSA) and the subcommittees, setting-up a steering committee of the workshop’s recommendations, as well as an observatory led by women with a clear mandate and mechanism to oversee progress towards women’s full, effective and meaningful participation; 4. Calls upon all parties in Mali to ensure full, effective and meaningful participation of women in the mechanisms established by the Agreement to support and monitor its implementation, using the appropriate framework, including through greater representation of women in the CSA, meeting the 30 per cent quota for women in all political functions and offices as defined in Mali’s legislation, and completion of Agreement-related targets laid out in Mali’s third national plan for the implementation of resolution 1325 (2000), and requests the Secretary-General to pay specific attention to these points in its regular reporting on MINUSMA; 5. Encourages the panel of experts established pursuant to resolution 2374 (2017) to identify parties responsible for potential lack of implementation of the priority measures referenced in paragraph 3 through its regular reporting and interim updates, expresses its intent, should these priority measures not be implemented by the end of MINUSMA’s current mandate, to respond with measures pursuant to resolution 2374 (2017) on individuals and entities who are thus obstructing or threatening the implementation of the Agreement, and stresses that individuals or entities placed on the 2374 sanctions list shall not benefit from any financial, operational or logistical support from United Nations entities deployed in Mali, until their removal from the list and without prejudice to the exemptions set by paragraphs 2, 5, 6 and 7 of resolution 2374 (2017), welcomes the measures already taken by United Nations entities deployed in Mali to ensure these individuals or entities do not benefit from such support, and requests the Secretary-General to include in his first quarterly report following the adoption of this mandate an update on these measures; 6. Calls upon all parties in Mali to strictly abide by the arrangements in place for a cessation of hostilities, and demands that all armed groups reject violence, cut off all ties with terrorist organizations and transnational organized crime, take concrete steps to prevent human rights abuses against civilians, put an end to recruitment and use of child soldiers, cease any activities hampering the return of State authority and basic social services, and recognize without conditions the unity and territorial integrity of the Malian State within the framework of the Agreement; 7. Urges all parties in Mali to cooperate fully with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and MINUSMA in the implementation of the Agreement, as well as to ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of MINUSMA’s personnel with unhindered and immediate access throughout the territory of Mali; 8. Calls for the inclusion within national and regional strategies of programs to address the stigma of sexual and gender-based violence, bring justice to victims and survivors, and support their reintegration into their communities, and further calls for the views of the victims and survivors to be taken into account in the design, establishment, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of these programs; 9. Urges more structured exchanges between the Malian parties between sessions of the CSA, acknowledges the role of the CSA to reconcile disagreements between the Malian parties, recalls the provisions of the Pact for Peace signed on 15 October 2018 between the Government of Mali and the United Nations recognizing the enforceability of the decisions and arbitrations of the international mediation team in case of divergence in the implementation of the Agreement, and calls on the members of the CSA and other relevant international partners, to increase their engagement in support to the implementation of the Agreement in coordination with the SRSG and MINUSMA; 10. Calls upon the Independent Observer to continue to make public, including through presentation to the CSA, regular reports containing concrete recommendations on steps to be taken by all parties to accelerate the full, effective and inclusive implementation of the Agreement, and further calls upon all parties to fully cooperate with the Carter Center in order to facilitate the implementation of its mandate as Independent Observer; 11. Calls upon the Malian parties to follow-up on the recommendations of the International Commission of Inquiry once they are conveyed;
12. Encourages all relevant United Nations agencies, as well as bilateral, regional and multilateral partners to provide the necessary support to contribute to the implementation of the Agreement by the Malian parties, in particular its provisions pertaining to sustainable development;
Situation in Central Mali 13. Urges the Malian authorities to take expedited action to protect civilians, reduce intercommunal violence and restore peaceful relations between communities in Central Mali through the Cadre politique de gestion de la crise au centre du Mali and the full and effective implementation of the Stratégie de stabilisation du centre du Mali in an integrated, comprehensive and politically-led manner, further urges Malian authorities to disarm without delay all militias, and encourages the intensification of reconciliation initiatives with a view to prevent the continuation and recurrence of inter-communal violence, and promote peaceful co-existence amongst the communities; 14. Urges the Malian authorities to fulfil the following priority measures before the end of MINUSMA’s current mandate: – re-establish State presence and State authority to Central Mali, by deploying and making fully operational internal security forces (police, gendarmerie, garde nationale), judicial entities and basic social services, ensuring their responsiveness and accountability, and setting-up concrete steps and a system to monitor progress in this regard, – fight against impunity for violations and abuses of international human rights law and violations of international humanitarian law in Central Mali, by bringing to justice the individuals accused of perpetrating the massacres that killed hundreds of civilians in 2019 and 2020 and by holding the corresponding trials; 15. Encourages the Malian authorities, with the help of their partners, to continue pursuing sustainable and inclusive socio-economic development in Central Mali, notably through development projects on education, infrastructures, and public health, with a special attention to youth;
MINUSMA’s mandate General principles 16. Decides to extend the mandate of MINUSMA until 30 June 2021; 17. Decides that MINUSMA shall continue to comprise up to 13,289 military personnel and 1,920 police personnel; 18. Authorizes MINUSMA to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate; 19. Decides that the primary strategic priority of MINUSMA remains to support the implementation of the Agreement by the Malian parties, as well as by other relevant Malian stakeholders, and further decides that the second strategic priority of MINUSMA is to facilitate the implementation by Malian actors of the Stratégie de stabilisation du centre du Mali, in a comprehensive and politically-led manner, with a view to protect civilians, reduce intercommunal violence, and re-establish State authority, State presence and basic social services in Central Mali, through the implementation of its mandated tasks; 20. Stresses that MINUSMA’s mandate should be implemented based on a prioritization of tasks established in paragraphs 19 above and 28 and 29 below, requests the Secretary-General to reflect this prioritization in the deployment of the mission and to align budgetary resources accordingly, while ensuring appropriate resources for the implementation of the mandate, affirms, in this regard, that the support to the implementation of the Agreement should be given priority in decisions about the use of available capacity and resources, that the SRSG, in consultation with the Force Commander and the Police Commissioner should be given sufficient flexibility to deploy MINUSMA contingents between sectors to rapidly respond, in line with MINUSMA’s mandate, to the dynamic security situation in both North and Central Mali, and that the SRSG, in consultation with the Force Commander, should ensure that sufficient mission resources are allocated to the implementation of the second strategic priority; 21. Requests MINUSMA to continue to carry out its mandate with a proactive, robust, flexible and agile posture; 22. Requests MINUSMA to ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel, to protect installations and equipment, and, in this context, to periodically review all safety and security measures; 23. Expresses its full support to the continuation of the implementation of MINUSMA’s adaptation plan, and encourages Member states to contribute to the plan by providing the capabilities needed for its success, particularly air assets; 24. Encourages the Secretary-General to keep under continuous update the integrated strategic framework setting the United Nations’ overall vision, joint priorities and internal division of labour to sustain peace in Mali, including enhanced coordination with donors, requests the Secretary-General to ensure an efficient division of tasks and complementarity of efforts between MINUSMA, its Trust Fund and the United Nations Country Team (UNCT), based on their mandates and comparative advantages as well as to continuously adjust their deployment according to the progress made in the implementation of MINUSMA’s mandate, while stressing the importance of adequate resources for the UNCT, underscores the critical nature of enhanced UNCT presence and activity in the Northern and Central regions of Mali, and calls on Member States and relevant organizations to consider providing the necessary voluntary funding to this end; 25. Encourages MINUSMA to pursue its efforts to improve coordination between its civil, military and police components, by reinforcing its integrated approach to operational planning and intelligence as well as through intra-mission dedicated coordination mechanisms; 26. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to ensure close coordination and information sharing, where appropriate, between MINUSMA, the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), sub-regional organizations, including ECOWAS and the G5 Sahel, as well as Member States in the region; 27. Requests MINUSMA to improve its communication efforts to raise awareness on its mandate and its role, as well as to underscore the role and responsibilities of the Malian authorities to protect civilians and implement the Agreement;
Priority tasks 28. Decides that MINUSMA’s mandate shall include the following priority tasks: (a) Support to the implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali (i) to use the SRSG’s good offices to encourage and support the full implementation of the Agreement, notably by heading the Secretariat of the CSA as well as by playing a central role to assist the Malian parties in identifying and prioritizing steps in this implementation; (ii) To support the implementation of the political and institutional reforms provided by the Agreement, especially in its Part II, notably to support the Government’s efforts for the effective restoration and extension of State authority and rule of law throughout the territory, including through supporting the effective functioning of interim administrations in the North of Mali under the conditions set out in the Agreement; (iii) To support the implementation of the defence and security measures of the Agreement, especially its Part III and Annex 2, notably: – to support, monitor and supervise the ceasefire, including through the continued implementation of control measures on movement and armament of signatory armed groups, including in designated weapon-free areas, and to report to the Security Council on violations of it, – to support the cantonment, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of armed groups, including through the integration of elements of the signatory armed groups in the MDSF as an interim measure, and the continued implementation of a community violence reduction program, within the framework of an inclusive and consensual reform of the security sector, taking into account the particular needs of women and children, and persons belonging to marginalised groups such as people with disabilities, and without prejudice to the anticipated plans of the demobilization, disarmament and reintegration and integration commissions, – to support the establishment by all relevant Malian parties of a comprehensive plan for the redeployment of the reformed and reconstituted MDSF in the North of Mali, including with a view to them assuming responsibility for security, and to support such redeployment including through operational, logistical and transportation support during coordinated and joint operations, planning, strengthened information sharing, and medical evacuation, within existing resources, without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping, – to ensure coherence of international efforts, in close collaboration with other bilateral partners, donors and international organizations, including the European Union, engaged in these fields, to rebuild the Malian security sector, within the framework set out by the Agreement; (iv) To support the implementation of the reconciliation and justice measures of the Agreement, especially in its Part V, including to support the operations of the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission and the follow-up of the recommendations of the International Commission of Inquiry, and to help ensuring the effectiveness of justice and corrections officials as well as Malian judicial institutions, particularly regarding the detention, investigation and prosecution of individuals suspected of, and sentencing of those found responsible for terrorism-related crimes, mass atrocities and transnational organized crime activities (including trafficking in persons, arms, drugs and natural resources, and the smuggling of migrants); (v) To encourage and support the full implementation of the Agreement by the Malian parties, and all relevant non-signatory actors, including by promoting the meaningful participation of civil society, including women’s organizations, women peacebuilders, and youth organizations and youth peacebuilders, and helping the Government of Mali to raise awareness on the content and the objectives of the Agreement;
(b) Support to stabilization and restoration of State authority in the Centre (i) To support Malian authorities in fully and effectively implementing the Stratégie de stabilisation du centre du Mali and meeting the priority measures set-out in paragraph 14 above; (ii) To facilitate the return of State presence, State authority and basic social services in the Centre, and to support the redeployment of the MDSF there, including through continued operational, logistical and transportation support during coordinated and joint operations, planning, strengthened information sharing and medical evacuation, within existing resources, without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping; (iii) To support Malian authorities in ensuring that those responsible for violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law are held accountable and brought to justice without delay; (c) Protection of civilians (i) To protect, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities, civilians under threat of physical violence; (ii) In support of the Malian authorities, to take active steps to anticipate, deter and effectively respond to threats to the civilian population, notably in the North and Center of Mali, through a comprehensive and integrated approach, and, in this regard: – to strengthen early warning mechanisms and systematically record and analyse MINUSMA’s rate of response, – to strengthen community engagement and protection mechanisms, including interaction with civilians, community outreach, reconciliation, mediation, support to the resolution of local and intercommunal conflicts and public information, – to take mobile, flexible, robust and proactive steps to protect civilians, including through the set-up of a Mobile Task Force, prioritizing the deployment of ground and air assets, as available, in areas where civilians are most at risk, while expecting Malian authorities to assume their responsibilities in the respective areas, – to mitigate the risk to civilians before, during and after any military or police operation, including by tracking, preventing, minimizing, and addressing civilian harm resulting from the mission’s operations, – to prevent the return of active armed elements to key population centres and other areas where civilians are at risk, engaging in direct operations pursuant only to serious and credible threats; (iii) To provide specific protection and assistance for women and children affected by armed conflict, including through Protection Advisors, Child Protection Advisors, Women Protection Advisors and civilian and uniformed Gender Advisors and focal points, as well as consultations with women’s organizations, and address the needs of victims and survivors of sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict; (d) Good offices and reconciliation (i) To exercise good offices, confidence-building and facilitation at the national and local levels, in order to support dialogue with and among all stakeholders towards reconciliation and social cohesion;
(ii) To support efforts to reduce intercommunal tensions, bearing in mind the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities; (iii) To support the holding of inclusive, free, fair, transparent and credible elections, conducted in a peaceful environment, including regional, local and legislative by-elections, as needed, and, as appropriate, of a constitutional referendum, including through the provision of technical assistance and security arrangements, consistent with the provisions of the Agreement; (e) Promotion and protection of human rights (i) To assist the Malian authorities in their efforts to promote and protect human rights, in particular in the areas of justice and reconciliation, including to support, as feasible and appropriate, the efforts of the Malian authorities, without prejudice to their responsibilities, to bring to justice without undue delay those responsible for serious violations or abuses of human rights or violations of international humanitarian law, in particular war crimes and crimes against humanity in Mali, taking into account the referral by the transitional authorities of Mali of the situation in their country since January 2012 to the ICC; (ii) To improve efforts to monitor, document, conduct fact-finding missions, help investigate and report publicly and regularly to the Security Council, on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights, including all forms of sexual and gender-based violence, trafficking in persons, and violations and abuses committed against women and children throughout Mali and to contribute to efforts to prevent such violations and abuses including by liaising with relevant partners, as appropriate; (f) Humanitarian assistance In support of the Malian authorities, to contribute to the creation of a secure environment for the safe civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance, consistent with humanitarian principles, and the voluntary, safe and dignified return, local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors, including relevant UN agencies;
Other tasks 29. Further authorizes MINUSMA, without impeding on its capacity to implement its priority tasks, to use its existing capacities to assist in implementing the following other tasks in a streamlined and sequenced manner, bearing in mind that priority and secondary tasks are mutually reinforcing: (a) Quick impact projects To contribute to the creation of a secure environment for quick impact projects in direct support to the implementation of the Agreement in the North or in response to specific needs in the Centre on the basis of strong conflict analysis; (b) Cooperation with Sanctions Committees To assist and exchange information with the Sanctions Committee and the Panel of experts established by resolution 2374 (2017) and to ensure that its activities in Mali are consistent with efforts to promote the implementation of the sanctions measures set forth in this resolution; To assist the 1267/1989/2253 ISIL (Da’esh) and Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee and the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team established by resolution 1526 (2004), including by passing information relevant to the implementation of the measures in paragraph 1 of resolution 2368 (2017);
Other security presences in Mali and the Sahel region 30. Requests the Secretary-General to ensure adequate coordination, exchange of information and, when applicable, support, within their respective mandates and through existing mechanisms, between MINUSMA, the MDSF, the FC-G5S, the French Forces and the European Union missions in Mali, and further requests MINUSMA to convene regular meetings of the Instance de Coordination au Mali as the main platform for such coordination, exchange of information and support; 31. Stresses that security responses to the threats faced by Mali can only be effective if conducted in full compliance with international law, and while taking feasible precautions to minimize the risk of harm to civilians in all areas of operations, requests MINUSMA to ensure that any of its support to other security presences mentioned in paragraph 30 above is provided in strict compliance with the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy on United Nations support to non-United Nations security forces (HRDDP) and calls upon all non-United Nations security forces in receipt of such support to continue cooperating with the United Nations and the relevant monitoring and reporting mechanisms in implementing the HRDDP;
Malian Defence and Security Forces 32. Urges MINUSMA and the Government of Mali to redouble their efforts towards ensuring a swift, full and effective implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding on support to the redeployment of MDSF; 33. Encourages bilateral and multilateral partners to continue their support to accelerate the redeployment of the MDSF to the Centre and, once reformed and reconstituted, to the North of Mali, particularly by providing relevant equipment and training, in coordination with the Government of Mali and MINUSMA and within the framework of the Agreement; 34. Expresses serious concerns about repeated allegations of violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law by MDSF in the conduct of counterterrorism operations, takes positive note of the measures announced by the Government of Mali in response to these allegations, and urges the Government of Mali to effectively implement these measures, notably by carrying out transparent, credible and timely investigations and holding accountable those responsible, especially as it relates to the allegations documented by the MINUSMA Human Rights Division; 35. Calls upon the Government of Mali to implement all recommendations made by MINUSMA in the framework of the HRDDP, and encourages international partners to insist on respect for international human rights law, international humanitarian law and accountability as a necessary condition when partnering with the MDSF or other armed actors;
Force conjointe du G5 Sahel 36. Welcomes the increased autonomy of the G5 Sahel Executive Secretariat (“the Executive Secretariat”) and of the FC-G5S as steps towards self-sufficiency, encourages G5 Sahel States to ensure that the FC-G5S continues to scale up its level of operation in order to demonstrate increased tangible operational results, underlines the importance of progress in the operationalization of the G5 Sahel police component and encourages support to this component, including through the training of its Specialized Investigative Units;
37. Stresses that operational and logistical support from MINUSMA, as per the conditions set by resolution 2391 (2017), is a temporary measure which has the potential to allow the FC-G5S, given its current level of capacities, to enhance its ability to deliver on its mandate, and calls on the FC-G5S to continue developing its own capacity to support itself; 38. Recalls all provisions of paragraph 13 of resolution 2391, takes note of the options presented in the report of the Secretary-General (S/2020/476), expresses its support for the use of life support consumables provided by MINUSMA to the FC-G5S based both on resolution 2391 and on the technical agreement between the United Nations, the European Union and the G5 Sahel (“the technical agreement”) by all G5 Sahel contingents operating in the framework of the FC-G5S under the conditions that the FC-G5S or other entities, including private companies, which MINUSMA or other United Nations organs may engage, consulting with the Executive Secretariat on the selection process and paying attention to the local content, in accordance with UN procurement rules and guiding principles, undertake the responsibility of ensuring their delivery to locations agreed by the FC-G5S and MINUSMA when outside of Malian territory, that provision of support is undertaken in strict compliance with the HRDDP, and that MINUSMA’s support to the FC-G5S, as per the conditions set out in resolution 2391, in the technical agreement and in the delegation agreement signed between the European Union and the United Nations, continues to be subject to full financial reimbursement to the United Nations through an European Union-coordinated financing mechanism and without affecting MINUSMA’s capacity to implement its mandate and strategic priorities, recalls the reporting obligations set by paragraph 33 (iii) of resolution 2391, further requests the Secretary-General to include in its April 2021 report on the G5 Sahel an assessment of the implementation of paragraph 13 of resolution 2391, including on the HRDDP and on the prospects of the Executive Secretariat and the FC-G5S improving their autonomy and setting-up their own procurement system, and expresses its intent, on this basis, to take a decision on the future of the mechanism set by paragraph 13 of resolution 2391 at the end of MINUSMA’s current mandate; 39. Requests the Secretary-General to enhance exchange of information between MINUSMA and the G5 Sahel States, through provision of relevant intelligence; 40. Recalls that adherence to the compliance framework referred to in resolution 2391 (2017) is essential in ensuring the required trust among the populations, and thus the effectiveness and legitimacy of the FC-G5S;
French forces 41. Authorizes French forces, within the limits of their capacities and areas of deployment, to use all necessary means until the end of MINUSMA’s mandate as authorized in this resolution, to intervene in support of elements of MINUSMA when under imminent and serious threat upon request of the Secretary-General, and requests France to report to the Council on the implementation of this mandate in Mali and to coordinate its reporting with the reporting by the Secretary-General referred to in paragraph 62 below;
European Union contribution 42. Encourages the European Union, notably its Special Representative for the Sahel and its EUTM Mali and EUCAP Sahel Mali missions, to continue its efforts to support Malian authorities in Security Sector Reform and reestablishment of State authority and presence throughout the Malian territory, further encourages close coordination of these efforts with MINUSMA, and requests the Secretary-General to enhance cooperation between MINUSMA and EUTM Mali and EUCAP Sahel missions, including by developing further complementarity between the missions and by exploring modalities for potential mutual support;
Capacities of MINUSMA, safety and security of MINUSMA’s personnel 43. Stresses the importance to provide MINUSMA with the necessary performance capacities to fulfill its mandate in a complex security environment that includes asymmetric threats while ensuring the best possible level of safety and security for its personnel; 44. Urges Member States to provide troops and police that have adequate capabilities, including regarding language skills, predeployment and, where appropriate, in situ training, and equipment, including enablers, specific to the operating environment, notes the potential adverse effects on mandate implementation of national caveats which have not been declared and accepted by the Secretary General prior to deployment, and calls on Members State to declare all national caveats, provide troops and police with the minimum of declared caveats, and to fully and effectively implement the provisions of the Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) signed with the United Nations; 45. Requests the Secretary-General to seek to increase the number of women in MINUSMA, as well as to ensure the full, effective and meaningful participation of women in all aspects of operations; 46. Strongly condemns attacks against peacekeepers and other United Nations and associated personnel, underlines that these attacks may constitute war crimes under international law, stresses that those responsible for these acts should be held accountable, calls on the Government of Mali to swiftly investigate and bring the perpetrators to justice, with a view to prevent impunity from encouraging future violence against peacekeepers, calls upon MINUSMA to provide support to the Government of Mali to this end, further stresses the importance of MINUSMA having the necessary capacities to promote the safety and security of the United Nations peacekeepers, requests the Secretary-General to regularly include in its reports information on the efforts of Mali in that regard, and further requests the SecretaryGeneral to ensure troop contributing countries receive sufficient information relevant to up-to-date tactics, techniques, and procedures in reducing troop casualties in an asymmetric environment before deploying to Mali; 47. Requests the Secretary-General, Member States, and the Government of Mali to continue to take all appropriate measures to review and enhance the safety and security of MINUSMA’s personnel, in line with resolution 2518 (2020), and the action plan developed by MINUSMA in this regard, including through: – improving MINUSMA’s intelligence and analysis capacities, including surveillance and monitoring capacities, within the limits of its mandate, – providing training, knowledge and equipment to counter explosive devices, including enhanced support to troop and police contributing countries to deploy the environment specific mine-protected vehicles needed under the current Force requirements, – improving logistics in mission, in particular by taking all necessary measures to secure MINUSMA’s logistical supply routes, including through the continued deployment of combat convoy battalions and the use of modern technology such as multiple sensors, intelligence fusion and unmanned aerial systems, as well as by exploring potential alternative logistical supply routes, – enhancing camps protection, including through the urgent deployment of indirect fire attack early warning devices, such as ground alert radars, on premises not yet equipped, – implementing more effective casualty and medical evacuation procedures, including the Standard Operating Procedure on Decentralized Casualty Evacuation, as well as deploying enhanced medical evacuation capacities, – taking active and effective measures to improve the planning and functioning of MINUSMA’s safety and security facilities and arrangements, – securing long-term rotation schemes for critical capabilities as well as exploring innovative options to promote partnerships between equipment, troop- and police-contributing countries; 48. Recognizes that the effective implementation of peacekeeping mandates is the responsibility of all stakeholders and is contingent upon several critical factors, including well-defined, realistic, and achievable mandates, political will, leadership, performance and accountability at all levels, adequate resources, policy, planning, and operational guidelines, and training and equipment; 49. Welcomes the initiatives undertaken by the Secretary-General to standardize a culture of performance in UN peacekeeping, recalls its requests in resolution 2378 (2017) and resolution 2436 (2018) that the Secretary-General ensures that performance data related to the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations is used to improve mission operations, including decisions such as those regarding deployment, remediation, repatriation and incentives, reaffirms its support for the development of a comprehensive and integrated performance policy framework that identifies clear standards of performance for evaluating all United Nations civilian and uniformed personnel working in and supporting peacekeeping operations that facilitates effective and full implementation of mandates, and includes comprehensive and objective methodologies based on clear and well-defined benchmarks to ensure accountability for underperformance and incentives and recognition for outstanding performance, and calls on him to apply it to MINUSMA, in particular by investigating and taking action on underperformance, to include the rotation, repatriation, replacement or dismissal of any under-performing MINUSMA uniformed or civilian personnel, consistent with resolution 2436 (2018), and notes the efforts of the Secretary-General to develop a comprehensive performance assessment system; 50. Calls upon Member States, especially those in the region, to ensure the free, unhindered and expeditious movement to and from Mali of all personnel, as well as equipment, provisions, supplies and other goods, which are for the exclusive and official use of MINUSMA, in order to facilitate the timely and cost-effective delivery of the logistical supply of MINUSMA;
Obligations under international law, human rights law and related aspects 51. Urges the Malian authorities to ensure that all those responsible for crimes involving violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including those involving sexual and gender based violence, and human trafficking, are held accountable and brought to justice without undue delay, and that all victims and survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict situations have access to justice, and notes, in this regard, the Malian authorities’ continued cooperation with the ICC, in accordance with Mali’s obligations under the Rome Statute, in matters that are within its jurisdiction; 52. Urges all parties to comply with obligations under international humanitarian law to respect and protect all civilians, including humanitarian personnel and civilian objects, as well as all medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities, and take all required steps to allow and facilitate the full, safe, immediate and unimpeded access of humanitarian actors for the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all people in need, while respecting the humanitarian principles and applicable international law; 53. Reiterates that the Malian authorities have primary responsibility to protect civilians in Mali, reaffirms its past resolutions on the Protection of civilians in armed conflicts, Children and armed conflicts, Women, peace and security, and Youth, peace and security, calls upon MINUSMA and all military forces operating in Mali to take them into account and to abide by international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, and recalls the importance of training in this regard; 54. Welcomes the adoption by the Malian authorities of a third action plan to implement resolution 1325 (2000), requests MINUSMA to take fully into account gender considerations as a cross-cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the Malian authorities in ensuring the full, effective and meaningful participation, involvement and representation of women at all levels in the implementation of the Agreement, including the security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes, as well as in reconciliation and electoral processes, and calls on the Malian parties to address the need for extra protection for women and children in vulnerable situations as a cross-cutting issue; 55. Urges all parties to implement the conclusions on Children And Armed Conflict in Mali adopted by the Security Council working group on 19 June 2018, encourages the Government of Mali to continue its efforts to strengthen the legal framework on child protection, notes the endorsement by the Government of Mali of the Safe Schools Declaration and encourages a mapping of schools that have been closed, targeted or threatened, calls upon the Government of Mali to ensure that the protection of children’s rights is taken into account in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes and in security sector reform, urges all armed groups to establish and implement action plans to end and prevent all six grave violations against children, as identified by the Secretary-General, including the recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children, and requests MINUSMA to take fully into account child protection as a cross-cutting issue throughout its mandate; 56. Urges all parties to prevent and eliminate sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict situations, encourages the implementation of the Joint Communiqué on sexual and gender-based violence signed by the United Nations and the Government of Mali in March 2019, further encourages Malian authorities to continue to take steps towards the enactment of the draft law on prevention, prosecution and response to gender-based violence, calls upon the Plateforme armed group to implement the commitments contained in its Communiqué sur la prévention des violences sexuelles liées au conflit au Mali of June 2016 and upon the Coordination armed group to make similar commitments, and requests MINUSMA to support efforts in this regard; 57. Requests the Secretary-General to take all necessary measures to ensure full compliance in MINUSMA with the United Nations zero-tolerance policy on serious misconduct, sexual exploitation and abuse, and sexual harassment, including by making full use of the existing authority of the SRSG to ensure accountability of the Mission’s staff and through effective mission support arrangement and to keep the Council fully informed if such cases of misconduct occur, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to take appropriate preventative action, including vetting, predeployment and in-mission awareness training, and to ensure full accountability in cases of such conduct involving their personnel, including through timely investigations of all allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse, and to repatriate units when there is credible evidence of widespread or systemic sexual exploitation and abuse by those units; 58. Calls on Member States and international and regional organizations to respond swiftly to the significant food and humanitarian crisis in Mali through increased contributions;
Environmental issues 59. Requests MINUSMA to consider the environmental impacts of its operations when fulfilling its mandated tasks and, in this context, to manage them as appropriate and in accordance with applicable and relevant General Assembly resolutions and United Nations rules and regulations;
Small arms, light weapons and explosive ordnance threat mitigation 60. Calls upon the Malian authorities to address the issue of the proliferation and illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, including by ensuring the safe and effective management, storage and security of their stockpiles and ammunitions in accordance with the ECOWAS Convention on small arms and light weapons, their ammunition and other related materials, the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons and with resolution 2220 (2015); 61. Calls upon the Malian authorities to strengthen cooperation with the United Nations, regional and sub-regional organizations, civil society, and private sector in order to give the most appropriate response to explosive ordnance threat;
Reports by the Secretary-General 62. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council every three months after the adoption of this resolution on the implementation of this resolution, focusing: (i) on progress in the implementation of the Agreement, particularly on the priority measures referenced in paragraph 3 above, (ii) on progress in the implementation of the Stratégie de stabilisation du centre du Mali, particularly on the priority measures referenced in paragraph 14 above, as well as on MINUSMA’s efforts to support these objectives, (iii) on coordination, exchange of information and, when applicable, mutual operational and logistical support, between MINUSMA, the MDSF, the FC-G5S, the French Forces and the European Union missions in Mali, (iv) on measures to improve external communication of the mission; 63. Further requests the Secretary-General, addressing perspectives from all relevant actors, including the SRSG, in consultation with the Force Commander, to provide every six months the Security Council with a letter exclusively and thoroughly focusing on: (i) information on progress in mission operations, to include security challenges, implementation of the adaptation plan as well as an update on discussions in the Instance de Coordination au Mali on the coordination of security responsibilities, (ii) information on performance and rotations of uniformed personnel, on the basis of the methodology referred to in paragraph 49, including information on undeclared caveats and their impact on the mission, and how the reported cases of under-performance are addressed,
(iii) an update on the implementation of the integrated strategic framework referred to in paragraph 24 above, encouraging that this framework also includes a transition plan with a view to handing over relevant tasks to the UNCT based on their mandates and comparative advantages as well as on a mapping of capabilities and gaps, a resource mobilization strategy that involves the full range of multilateral and bilateral partners, as well as a possible long-term exit strategy of the Mission on the basis of improved security and political conditions as well as of progress in the implementation of the Agreement; 64. Requests the Secretary-General, in coordination with the Instance de Coordination au Mali, the Government of Mali, and in consultation with other relevant partners, including UN agencies, member states, regional organizations and independent experts, to develop a long-term roadmap assessing the continued challenges to peace and security in Mali, and focusing on a set of realistic, relevant and clearly measurable benchmarks and conditions, including, among others, progress in the implementation of the Agreement, the redeployment of the reformed and reconstituted MDSF across the territory of Mali, the full operationalization of the FC-G5S and the implementation of MINUSMA’s adaptation plan, to ensure a phased, coordinated and deliberate transition of security responsibilities opening the way for a possible exit strategy for the mission, when the conditions are met, without jeopardizing the stability of Mali and its region, to be presented in its entirety to the Security Council by 31 March 2021; 65. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

Topics
Mali
Year
2020
Title
The situation in Mali. Letter from the President of the Council on the voting outcome (S/2020/613) and voting details (S/2020/625)
Related with resolutions
1325 1526 2220 2364 2368 2374 2378 2391 2436 2480 2518
Quoted in resolutions
2541
Security Council Composition
CHN FRA RUS GBR USA BEL DOM DEU IDN ZAF EST NER VCT TUN VNM