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Resolution 2472

The situation in Somalia

Abstract

S/RES/2472 (2019)
Security Council Distr.: General 31 May 2019
Resolution 2472 (2019)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 8537th meeting, on 31 May 2019
The Security Council, Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia, Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence, and unity of Somalia, Condemning violations and abuses of international human rights law and violations of international humanitarian law in Somalia, calling on all parties to act in full compliance with international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and further recalling the Working Group Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict in Somalia (S/AC.51/2017/2), Condemning Al Shabaab attacks in Somalia and beyond, expressing deep concern at the loss of civilian life from Al Shabaab attacks, and further expressing concern over reports of an increased presence in Somalia of pro-Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant actors, Paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifices made by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and Somali security forces personnel in the fight against Al Shabaab, and commending the contribution of AMISOM to lasting peace and stability in Somalia, Welcoming the support provided by the UN Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) to AMISOM and the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), further welcoming political support provided by UNSOM, AMISOM and the AU, and the political and financial support from international partners, welcoming the commitment by Somalia and the UN to strengthen their relationship and in this regard looks forward to the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Somalia, taking up their duties, Underlining the importance of finalising an inclusive political settlement between the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and the Federal Member States (FMS) and recalling the importance of the full implementation of the conditionsbased Transition Plan with clear target dates (Transition Plan) which sets out the progressive transfer of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali Security institutions and forces,
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Expressing grave concern at the humanitarian situation in Somalia, and commending AMISOM’s efforts to create conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian assistance, Emphasising the need for adequate risk assessment and risk management strategies by the FGS and the UN, of climate change, other ecological changes, natural disasters, energy access, and other factors on the stability of Somalia, Taking note of the 2019 Joint AU-UN Review of AMISOM, the African Union Peace and Security Council’s communiqué of 9 May 2019 on the situation in Somalia, and the Secretary-General’s letter of 10 May on AMISOM, Determining that the situation in Somalia continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security, Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, 1. Calls on the FGS and FMS urgently to accelerate progress towards an inclusive political settlement, that includes: 1) their agreement on resource and power sharing to be enshrined in the revision of the Provisional Federal Constitution 2) the establishment of governance and oversight structures, and 3) the delineation of roles and responsibilities of Somalia’s security institutions; and further calls on the FGS and FMS to accelerate security planning for elections, in coordination with AMISOM, UNSOS, and UNSOM, including to allow an inclusive, peaceful, free and fair oneperson-one-vote in 2020/2021; 2. Underlines that the threat of Al Shabaab and other armed opposition groups will not be defeated by military means alone and in this regard, calls on the FGS, FMS, AMISOM, the UN and UN Member states to work together to take a comprehensive approach to security; 3. Recalls its support for the Transition Plan, and underscores the recommendation in the Joint Review 2019 that AMISOM’s strategic tasks and priorities be seen primarily in the context of the transition; 4. Underlines the necessity of taking a coordinated and cohesive approach to Somali-led political and security reforms and thereby calls on: (a) AMISOM, UNSOM, UNSOS, the FGS and FMS to increase coordination and collaboration at all levels, including through the Senior Leadership Coordination Forum and the Comprehensive Approach to Security (CAS) mechanism; (b) International and regional partners, in coordination with UNSOM and through the CAS mechanism, to coordinate and better align their support to AMISOM and Somalia in line with the Security Pact and to enable delivery of the Transition Plan, including with respect to mentoring, training, equipment, capacity building, and remuneration of police and military forces; (c) The FGS, FMS, AMISOM, the UN, the AU and relevant partners, to increase comprehensive joint planning, coordination and information sharing through the relevant mechanisms, to enable more effective delivery and monitoring of the Transition Plan; 5. Underscores the need for all stakeholders to take into account the security situation in each location when transitioning, and for locations of drawdowns of AMISOM personnel to be determined by threat assessments and with due regard to the need to protect civilians and mitigate risk before, during and after any military operation, underlines that all transitions should be agreed between AMISOM and the Somali security forces and Somali authorities included in strategic and operational decision making processes and with the UN and other international partners where
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appropriate, and reaffirms the essential role of the police and justice sector in stabilisation efforts and the preparation and conduct of elections; 6. Urges the FGS, with the coordinated support of the international community, to focus on the generation of able, accountable, acceptable and affordable Somali forces which will allow the progressive transfer of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security institutions and create critical security for elections in 2020/2021;
AMISOM
Priorities and tasks 7. Decides to authorise the Member States of the AU to maintain the deployment of AMISOM until 31 May 2020, including a minimum of 1,040 AMISOM police personnel including five Formed Police Units, and to reduce the level of uniformed AMISOM personnel by 1000 to a maximum level of 19,626, by 28 February 2020, in line with the Transition Plan, and the handover to Somali security forces, unless the Security Council decides to adjust the pace of the reduction taking into account conditions set out in the Transition Plan, including the ability of Somalia to generate able, accountable, acceptable and affordable forces, as well as joint AU/UN/FGS threat assessments of the conditions on the ground, in coordination with relevant partners, and invites the UN and AU to develop proposals, based on FGS plans, for handling security aspects of the next elections, including whether there is a need for a temporary surge in police numbers; 8. Further decides that AMISOM shall be authorised to take all necessary measures, in full compliance with participating States’ obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, and in full respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia, to carry out its mandate; 9. Decides to authorise AMISOM to pursue the following strategic objectives within the context of the transition to Somalia taking responsibility for security, as set out in the Transition Plan: (a) Conduct a gradual handing over of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces with the aim of Somali security institutions taking the lead by 2021; (b) Reduce the threat posed by Al Shabaab and other armed opposition groups with a view to enabling a stable, federal, sovereign and united Somalia; (c) Assist the Somali security forces to provide security for the political process at all levels, stabilisation efforts, reconciliation, and peacebuilding and provide relevant support to Somali police and authorities to create a secure environment in the build up to elections with the aim of fully handing over security responsibility to Somali security institutions; 10. Decides to authorise AMISOM to carry out the following priority tasks to achieve these objectives: (a) Maintain a presence in the sectors set out in AMISOM’s Concept of Operations, prioritising the main population centres, and reconfiguring within the timeline and guidelines of this resolution; (b) Mentor and assist Somali security forces, including combat readiness mentoring for Somali military forces, and mentoring and training where necessary for Somali police;
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(c) Secure key supply routes including to areas recovered from Al Shabaab, in coordination with stabilisation and reconciliation actors, in particular supply routes essential to improving the humanitarian situation, which may include commercial goods essential to meeting the basic needs of civilians, those critical for logistical support to AMISOM, and key supply routes supporting delivery of the Transition Plan, and underscoring that the delivery of logistics remains a joint responsibility between the United Nations and AU; (d) Assist, as appropriate, the Somali security forces to enable the Somali authorities to carry out their functions of government, including their efforts towards, stabilisation coordinated with the Ministry of Interior, Federal Affairs and Reconciliation (MoIFAR) and Community Recovery and Extension of State Authority and Accountability (CRESTA/A), reconciliation, peacebuilding, election preparation and security for key infrastructure; (e) Conduct targeted offensive operations that support the Transition Plan, including jointly with the Somali security forces, to disrupt and degrade Al Shabaab and other armed opposition groups, and take actions to mitigate the threat posed by improvised explosive devices; (f) Reconfigure AMISOM, as security conditions allow, in support of the Transition Plan and in favour of police personnel within the authorised AMISOM personnel ceiling; (g) Protect, as appropriate, its personnel, facilities, installations, equipment and mission, and to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel, as well as of United Nations personnel carrying out functions mandated by the Security Council; (h) Receive defectors on a transitory basis, as appropriate, and in coordination with the United Nations and the FGS; (i) Support and assist the FGS and FMSs in implementing the total ban on the export of charcoal from Somalia and the documentation and facilitation of the inspection of seized equipment as requested in paragraph 18 of resolution 2111 (2013) and paragraph 6 of resolution 2182 (2014); 11. Requests the African Union (AU), by November 2019, to update and continue to develop the CONOPS throughout the transition, in close collaboration with the FGS, the UN and key partners; 12. Requests the AU to strengthen operational coordination among AMISOM contingents, strengthen command, control and accountability of the operationalisation of mission enabling units, including air assets, increase operational decision making under both the Sector and Force Commander, and ensure that all force enablers and multipliers operate under the command of the Force Commander; 13. Supports the recommendation in the Joint Review (2019) for AMISOM to undertake a phased approach towards achieving equipment optimisation within available resources, and in this regard supports the intention by the AU and the UN to conduct an equipment review by July 2019, taking into consideration Statement of Unit requirements (SURs), and within existing resources, with a view to strengthen AMISOM’s operational capabilities and enhance its force protection to carry out their mandated tasks, and encourages Member States to support the AU in mobilising the required resources and equipment, including through uncaveated financial contributions to the AMISOM Trust Fund; 14. Supports the efforts to deploy AMISOM’s civilians out to the sectors and underlines the importance of a fully operational civilian component to support AMISOM’s military and police tasks for transition and drawdown;
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15. Underlines the continued importance of AMISOM forces carrying out their mandate in full compliance with participating states’ obligations under international law, including with regard to the protection of civilians, especially women and children, and of cooperating with UNSOM and UNSOS in implementing the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy on United Nations support to Non-United Nations security forces (HRDDP) across the preparatory, conduct and review phases of operations; calls upon AMISOM to undertaken and upon the AU to ensure monitoring of prompt and thorough investigations into and reporting on allegations of violations and abuses of international human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, as well as ensuring the highest standards of transparency and conduct and discipline, and harmonisation of their procedures with UNSOM, including Boards of Inquiry, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to accelerate efforts to cooperate with the AU and UN to enhance the effectiveness of these measures; 16. Requests AMISOM to strengthen uniformity of reporting to the Civilian Casualty Tracking Analysis and Response Cell (CCTARC) across all of the sectors, and take further steps to ensure mitigation measures are in place, underlines the importance of ensuring information is shared with relevant actors including the United Nations, is integrated into AMISOM reporting, and feeds into operational guidelines and plans, and requests the full support of troop and police contributors to the CCTARC, in collaboration with humanitarian, human rights and protection actors; 17. Reaffirms the importance of AMISOM’s zero-tolerance policy on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, and in this regard, requests the AU and troop- and policecontributing countries to screen personnel, undertake risk assessments, deliver all relevant training to personnel, to protect survivors who report abuse, carry out timely investigations into allegations to hold perpetrators accountable, and to repatriate units where there is credible evidence of widespread or systemic sexual exploitation or abuse by those units, and further requests the AU to work closely with the UN in this regard; 18. Strongly encourages efforts to increase the percentage of female uniformed personnel deployed to AMISOM by the Troop and Police Contributing Countries, and urges AMISOM to ensure the full, effective and meaningful participation of women across its operations and to integrate a gender perspective throughout the delivery of its mandate;
Logistical and Financial Support 19. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to provide a logistical support package in full compliance of HRDDP, through UNSOS for UNSOM, AMISOM uniformed personnel and 70 AMISOM civilians, on the basis set out in operative paragraph 2 of resolution 2245 (2015), and for 10,900 Somali security forces, who are formally integrated into the Somali security forces in line with the National Security Architecture and who are actively participating in joint or coordinated operations with AMISOM that directly support the Transition Plan; 20. Agrees with the Secretary-General that oversight and accountability, in particular compliance with HRDDP will be the cornerstone of the partnership between the United Nations, the AU, the FGS and the FMSs, requests the Secretary-General to ensure that any support provided to non-United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the HRDDP and further requests UNSOS to strengthen its capacity to ensure the implementation of the HRDDP with regard to its support for AMISOM and Somali security forces; 21. Requests the Secretary-General to work closely with the AU in supporting the implementation of this resolution, including to provide technical and expert
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advice on the planning, deployment and strategic management of AMISOM in line with the mandate of the United Nations office to the AU; 22. Reiterates its call for new donors to provide support for: (a) AMISOM through the provision of additional funding for troop stipends, equipment, and technical assistance for AMISOM, as recommended in the AU/UN funding report; (b) United Nations Trust Funds for AMISOM and the Somali National Army (SNA); (c) National and state-level institutions for the development of the Somali security sector, including capacity building for the maritime police force in line with resolution 2246 (2015); 23. Underlines the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for AU-led peace support operations authorised by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter, and encourages the Secretary-General, AU and Member States to continue efforts to explore in earnest funding arrangements for AMISOM, bearing in mind the full range of options available to the United Nations, AU, the European Union, and to other partners, and considering the limitations of voluntary funding, in order to establish secure future funding arrangements for AMISOM;
Somalia 24. Urges the Federal Government of Somalia and the Federal Member States to deliver on commitments set out in the Security Pact agreed at the London Somalia Conference, including trimestial meetings of the National Security Council, a plan detailing federal and state operational command structure, a comprehensive disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration plan, with input from the FMS; the generation and sustained deployment of able affordable, acceptable and accountable forces, and a list of the members of the armed forces at the federal and state level, including those regional forces to be integrated in the federal armed forces; and into the federal and state police; 25. Underlines the important steps taken by the FGS towards institution reform and capacity-building in the security sector, including bio-metric registration of the SNA, payment of salaries through direct electronic transfers and agreements reached by the FGS and FMSs to establish basic policing services across Somalia, as part of the new federated policing model; 26. Calls upon Somali authorities, in coordination with AMISOM, international partners, and relevant United Nations entities, including UNMAS, to address the illicit transfer, destabilising accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons in Somalia, and to ensure their safe and effective management and storage; 27. Reaffirms the important role of the full, equal, meaningful and effective participation of all Somalis, including women, youth, persons with disabilities, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and refugees in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, reconciliation processes, peacebuilding and elections and other political processes, and acknowledges the significant contribution that civil society can make in this regard; 28. Calls on Somali authorities to work with relevant partners to ensure protection for all from sexual and gender-based violence, including sexual exploitation and abuse and conflict-related sexual violence, to take appropriate steps to investigate allegations, strengthen legislation to support accountability for sexual
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violence in line with relevant resolutions, and to accelerate the implementation of the Joint Communiqué and the National Action Plan to combat sexual violence in conflict; 29. Calls on the Somali authorities to take action on preventing the killing and maiming, abduction, the recruitment, re-recruitment and use of, sexual violence against children in armed conflict, and to hold perpetrators to account, as well as to cease detention of all children on national security charges where this is in violation of applicable international law and to treat them primarily as victims, and to take action to implement their 2012 Action Plans, the 2018 Roadmap and the Working Group Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict in Somalia (S/AC.51/2017/2); 30. Reiterates its continued concern at the high number of refugees and IDPs, stresses that any evictions should be consistent with relevant national and international frameworks, and encourages the FGS to conclude ratification of the Kampala Convention and implement its provisions in full; 31. Recalls its resolution 2417 (2018) and expresses grave concern at the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Somalia and its impact on the people of Somalia, encourages all partners including donors to maintain humanitarian efforts in 2019, strongly condemns attacks against humanitarian and medical personnel, including by Al Shabaab, and any misuse or obstruction of humanitarian assistance, reiterates its demand that all parties allow full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for the timely delivery of aid to persons in need across Somalia in line with humanitarian principles, and underlines the importance of proper accounting of international humanitarian support;
Reporting 32. Requests the AU to keep the Security Council informed every 90 days, through the Secretary-General, on the implementation of AMISOM’s mandate, through no fewer than four written reports, with the first written report no later than 15 August 2019, and further requests in this regard, specific reporting on 1) joint operations in support of the Transition Plan including the use and effectiveness of coordination mechanisms, 2) performance issues, including command and control and conduct and discipline, 3) measures taken to protect civilians, 4) equipment provision, and 5) a reconfiguration plan on locations for drawdown determined by a threat assessment of AMISOM in the first 90 day report; 33. Requests the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council regularly informed on the implementation of this resolution, in his regular reports requested in paragraph 22 of resolution 2461 (2019), and in this regard further requests reporting on the number and capability of the Somali security forces, progress made on priority measures outlined in OP24, implementation of HRDDP, and reporting, every 6 months on specific measures taken to increase the accountability, efficiency and transparency of UNSOS support to AMISOM, UNSOM and the Somali Security forces; 34. Reaffirms the Security Council’s intention to keep the configuration of AMISOM under review and calls upon the Secretary-General to conduct an independent assessment, before 31 January 2021, with a view to presenting options to the Security Council on international engagement in Somalia post 2021, including the role of the UN, AU and international partners; 35. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

Topics
Civilians and Armed Conflict, Somalia
Year
2019
Title
The situation in Somalia
Related with resolutions
2111 2182 2245 2246 2417 2461
Security Council Composition
CHN FRA RUS GBR USA CIV GNQ KWT PER POL BEL DOM DEU IDN ZAF