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Resolution 2520

The situation in Somalia. Letter from the President of the Council on the voting outcome (S/2020/459) and voting details (S/2020/466)


Resolution 2520 (2020)
Adopted by the Security Council on 29 May 2020
The Security Council,
Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia,
Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence, and unity of Somalia,
Reiterating that Al Shabaab poses a serious threat to the stability of Somalia and its neighbours, condemning Al Shabaab attacks in Somalia and beyond, expressing deep concern at the loss of civilian life from Al Shabaab attacks, further expressing concern over the presence in Somalia of pro-Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant actors, noting the threat posed by Al Shabaab is evolving and that degrading Al Shabaab and building and sustaining peace will require regional cohesion, a comprehensive strategy, reconfiguration of support, a focus on stabilisation, enhanced efforts across multiple avenues and an integrated and coherent approach among relevant actors,
Underlining its commitment to further strengthen Somalia’s security institutions and forces towards exercising full authority over its own territory and taking the lead in security operations,
Paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifices made by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and Somali security forces personnel in the fight against Al Shabaab, and commending the contribution of AMISOM to building lasting peace and stability in Somalia,
Welcoming the progress made over the last year including recovering additional territory from Al Shabaab, training Somali security and police forces, steps to deepen Somali security sector reform such as completion of biometric registration of Somali security forces, and finalisation of the Somali-AU-UN Joint Threat Assessment,
Welcoming the support provided by the UN Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) to AMISOM and the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), further welcoming political support provided by UNSOM, and the AU and Somalia’s efforts to convene key stakeholders on future international security support to Somalia post-2021, and the political and financial support from international partners, welcoming the commitment by Somalia and the UN to further strengthen their relationship, reiterating the importance of strong cooperation, and unified command and control within AMISOM, and further reiterating the importance of transparency and accountability with all key partners,
Underlining the importance of reaching an inclusive political settlement between the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and its Federal Member States (FMS), reiterating the importance of the full implementation of the tasks set out in the Somali-led Transition Plan which sets out the progressive transfer of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security institutions and forces, through operational, supporting and institutional-building activities, and underlines its expectation that the Somali authorities set out their clear vision for security post-2021 and seek support from partners on this vision,
Underlining in this regard the ongoing delays in the implementation of the priority measures and commitments outlined in paragraph 1 and paragraph 24 of resolution 2472 (2019), committed to in the 2019 Mutual Accountability Framework and based on commitments set out in the 2017 Security Pact agreed at the London Somalia conference, and further encouraging progress against these measures,
Emphasising the importance of full cooperation between the FGS and its FMS, noting the responsibilities of all parties to improve cooperation and engage in FGS-led discussions, and underscoring that full cooperation would advance progress on key national priorities including: the implementation of the National Security Architecture; the delivery of tasks set out in the Somali-led Transition Plan; delivery of further financial reforms; the review of the Constitution; and implementation of timely elections by late 2020 or early 2021,
Condemning violations and abuses of international human rights law and violations of international humanitarian law in Somalia, calling on all parties to act in full compliance with their obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and further recalling the Working Group Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict in Somalia (S/AC.51/2017/2),
Expressing grave concern at the humanitarian situation in Somalia and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, recognising that the pandemic presents a profound challenge to Somalia’s health system, socio-economic and humanitarian situation, calling for the provision of humanitarian assistance necessary to support Somalia, noting with appreciation the measures taken by AMISOM and the UN to ensure the safety and security of AMISOM and UN personnel whilst maintaining continuity of operations, calling for continued efforts to mitigate the impact of the pandemic, and welcoming the role played by AMISOM in supporting Somali-led disaster management and relief efforts and their efforts to create conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian assistance,
Reaffirming the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peace-building, and stressing the importance of their full, effective and meaningful participation and involvement in all efforts at all levels for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, and the need to increase their role in decision-making and leadership with regard to conflict prevention and resolution,
Emphasising the need for adequate risk assessment and risk management strategies by the FGS and the UN, of climate change, other ecological changes, natural disasters, energy access, and other factors on the stability of Somalia,
Taking note of the 2019 Joint AU-UN Review of AMISOM, the African Union Peace and Security Council’s communiqué of 7 May 2020 on the situation in Somalia, and the Secretary-General’s report of 13 May 2020, S/2020/398 on the situation in Somalia,
Determining that the situation in Somalia continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
1. Calls on the FGS and its FMS urgently to make further progress on transition and welcomes the FGS’s commitment to revise the Somali-led Transition Plan by the end of September 2020, realigning tasks with partners and agreeing clear defining roles for all key stakeholders;
2. Urges the FGS and FMS to take concrete action to fulfil the priority measures in the 2019 Mutual Accountability Framework essential to Somali security and to inform decisions on international support for the Somali Security Sector after 2021;
(a) Reach an inclusive political settlement on resource and power sharing, establishment of governance and oversight structures, and the delineation of responsibilities of Somali security institutions;
(b) Reinstitute regular meetings of the National Security Council or an alternative mechanism for engagement;
(c) Accelerate technical and security planning for elections in coordination with AMISOM, UNSOS and UNSOM to allow one-person-one vote elections, which are free and fair, peaceful, transparent, timely, credible and inclusive, allowing as many citizens to vote as possible in late 2020 or early 2021;
(d) Develop and start implementing an achievable, time-bound and coordinated plan for force generation of able, affordable, accountable and acceptable forces and for the integration of regional forces into the federal armed forces and state police;
3. Reiterates that Al Shabaab and other armed groups will not be defeated by military means alone, and in this regard, calls on the FGS, FMS, AMISOM, the UN and international partners to work closer together to take a comprehensive approach to security which is collaborative, gender-responsive and stabilising, and calls on international partners to provide support to the FGS to counter Al Shabaab’s finance, procurement and propaganda efforts;
4. Recalls its support for the tasks set out in the Transition Plan, and underscores the recommendation in the Joint Review 2019 that AMISOM’s strategic tasks and priorities be seen primarily in the context of the transition;
5. Underlines its intention to assess security support needed to prepare Somalia towards taking on the leading role on security by end of 2021 and post-2021, and take decisions on the reconfiguration of AMISOM on the basis of: 1) Information shared by the AU, FGS, EU and relevant international partners; 2) Implementation of the priority measures outlined in paragraph 2 above; and 3) Outcomes of the independent assessment report as mandated in paragraph 34 of resolution 2472 (2019) and modified in paragraph 38 of this resolution;
6. Underlines the necessity of taking a coordinated and cohesive approach to Somali-led political and security reforms and thereby calls on:
(a) The FGS to drive forward and lead strategic coordination through regular high-level meetings of the Comprehensive Approach to Security (CAS) or alternative mechanisms, starting at the earliest opportunity, and for AMISOM, UNSOM, UNSOS, the FGS and FMS to increase coordination and collaboration at all levels;
(b) International and regional partners, in coordination with UNSOM and through the CAS including the military coordination mechanism, and other relevant mechanisms, to coordinate and better align their support to AMISOM and Somalia in line with the Security Pact and to enable delivery of the tasks set out in the updated Transition Plan, including with respect to mentoring, training, equipment, capacity building, and remuneration of police and military forces;
(c) The FGS, FMS, AMISOM, the UN, the AU and relevant partners, to increase comprehensive joint planning, coordination, information sharing and strategic communications led by the FGS, and for the FGS, AMISOM and UNSOS to undertake inclusive and integrated planning on transition locations, joint operations, and stabilisation activities in line with the tasks in an updated Somali-led Transition plan;
7. Underscores the need for all stakeholders to take into account the security situation in each location during transition of security responsibilities to Somalia and with due regard to the need to protect civilians and mitigate risk before, during and after any military operation, underlines that all joint operations and transitions, strategic and operational decisions, should be agreed between the Somali security forces, Somali authorities and AMISOM from the outset in coordination with the UN and other international partners where appropriate, and reaffirms the essential role of the police and justice sector in stabilisation efforts, the preparation and conduct of elections, and as the central security actors post transition;
8. Urges the FGS, with the coordinated support of the international community, to set out a clear strategic plan to generate new Somali security forces, integrate forces from the FMS and train and equip current and newly generated federal forces, requests the AU and UNSOM to provide additional support to AMISOM in its provision of combat mentoring support to the SNA, and underlines the importance of deploying these forces for delivery of the tasks set out in the updated Transition Plan;
Priorities and tasks
9. Decides to authorise the Member States of the AU to maintain the deployment of 19,626 uniformed AMISOM personnel until 28 February 2021, inclusive of a minimum of 1,040 AMISOM police personnel including five Formed Police Units, to support security preparations for elections due at the end of 2020 or the beginning of 2021, and to conduct tasks in line with an updated Somali-led Transition Plan and the handover of security to Somali security forces;
10. Further decides that AMISOM shall be authorised to take all necessary measures, in full compliance with participating States’ obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, and in full respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia, to carry out its mandate;
11. Decides to authorise AMISOM to pursue the following strategic objectives within the context of the transition to Somalia taking responsibility for security, as set out in the Transition Plan and in agreement with the FGS:
(a) Conduct a gradual handing over of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces with the aim of Somali security institutions taking the lead by 2021;
(b) Reduce the threat posed by Al Shabaab and other armed opposition groups with a view to enabling a stable, federal, sovereign and united Somalia;
(c) Assist the Somali security forces to provide security for the political process at all levels, stabilisation efforts, reconciliation, and peacebuilding, and provide relevant support to Somali police and authorities to create a secure environment in the build up to elections with the aim of fully handing over security responsibility to Somali security institutions;
12. Decides to authorise AMISOM to carry out the following priority tasks to achieve these objectives:
(a) Maintain a presence in the sectors set out in AMISOM’s Concept of Operations, prioritising the population centres identified by the FGS and reconfiguring in line with a Somali-led updated Transition Plan;
(b) Reconfigure AMISOM, and revise tasks, as security conditions allow, in support of the updated Transition Plan and in favour of police personnel within the authorised AMISOM personnel ceiling;
(c) Mentor, and assist Somali security forces, including combat readiness mentoring for Somali military forces, and mentoring and training where necessary for Somali police;
(d) Contribute towards securing and consistently maintaining key supply routes in collaboration with the Somali security forces, including to areas recovered from Al Shabaab, and in coordination with stabilisation and reconciliation actors, in particular supply routes essential to improving the humanitarian situation, which may include commercial goods essential to meeting the basic needs of civilians, those critical for logistical support to AMISOM, and key supply routes supporting delivery of the Transition Plan, and underscoring that the delivery of logistics remains a joint responsibility between the United Nations and AU;
(e) Assist, as appropriate, the Somali security forces to enable the Somali authorities to carry out their functions of government, including their efforts towards, stabilisation coordinated with the Ministry of Interior, Federal Affairs and Reconciliation (MoIFAR) and Community Recovery and Extension of State Authority and Accountability (CRESTA/A), reconciliation, peacebuilding, election preparation and security for key infrastructure;
(f) Conduct jointly-planned and targeted offensive operations that support the updated Transition Plan, including jointly with the Somali security forces, to disrupt and degrade Al Shabaab and other armed opposition groups, and take actions to mitigate the threat posed by improvised explosive devices;
(g) Protect, as appropriate, its personnel, facilities, installations, equipment and mission, and to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel, as well as of United Nations personnel carrying out functions mandated by the Security Council;
(h) Receive defectors on a transitory basis, as appropriate, and in coordination with the United Nations and the FGS;
(i) Support and assist the FGS and its FMSs in implementing the total ban on the export of charcoal from Somalia and the documentation and facilitation of the inspection of seized equipment including small arms and light weapons as requested in paragraph 18 of resolution 2111 (2013) and paragraph 6 of resolution 2182 (2014);
13. Requests the African Union (AU) to continue to develop and update the CONOPS in line with the updated Somali-led Transition Plan, and in close collaboration with the FGS, the UN and key partners;
14. Requests the AU to strengthen oversight and operational coordination among AMISOM contingents, strengthen command, control and accountability of the operationalisation of mission enabling units, including air assets, enabling the creation and operationalisation of mobile forces in the Sectors in line with AMISOM’s reconfiguration, ensure coordinated operational decision making under both the Sector and Force Commander, and ensure that all force enablers and multipliers operate under the command of the Force Commander, as well ensure effective consultation with appropriate Somali and international partners on operational decision-making;
15. Supports the AU equipment reviews undertaken in 2019, urges the AU to finalise its equipment review by September 2020 with UN support, taking into consideration Statement of Unit requirements (SURs), and within existing resources, in order to strengthen AMISOM’s operational capabilities, fill gaps in resource requirements, and enhance its force protection to carry out their mandated tasks, and further encourages Member States to support the AU in mobilising the required resources and equipment, including through uncaveated financial contributions to the AMISOM Trust Fund based on deliverable recommendations set out in the equipment review;
16. Urges the deployment of the remaining civilian component to provide full support to AMISOM’s military and police tasks for transition and drawdown;
17. Strongly underlines the continued importance of AMISOM forces carrying out their mandate in full compliance with participating states’ obligations under international law, including with regard to the protection of civilians, especially women and children, and of cooperating with UNSOM and UNSOS in implementing the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy on United Nations support to Non-United Nations security forces (HRDDP) across the preparatory, conduct and review phases of operations; calls upon AMISOM to undertake, and upon the AU to ensure, regular monitoring and prompt and thorough investigations into and reporting on allegations of violations and abuses of international human rights law and violations of international humanitarian law, as well as ensuring the highest standards of transparency, and conduct and discipline, and harmonisation of their procedures with UNSOM, welcomes the AU’s progress on the development of a compliance framework, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to strengthen their cooperation with the AU and the UN to ensure the effectiveness of the AMISOM compliance and accountability measures;
18. Requests AMISOM to strengthen uniformity of reporting to the Civilian Casualty Tracking Analysis and Response Cell (CCTARC) across all of the sectors, and take further steps to ensure mitigation measures are in place, underlines the importance of ensuring information is shared with relevant actors including the United Nations, is integrated into AMISOM reporting, and feeds into operational guidelines and plans, and requests the full support of troop and police contributors to the CCTARC, in collaboration with humanitarian, human rights and protection actors;
19. Reaffirms the importance of AMISOM’s zero-tolerance policy on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, and in this regard, requests the AU and troop- and police-contributing countries to screen personnel, undertake risk assessments, deliver all relevant training to personnel, to protect and support the relief and recovery of survivors who report abuse, carry out timely investigations into allegations to hold perpetrators accountable, and to repatriate units where there is credible evidence of widespread or systemic sexual exploitation or abuse by those units, and further requests the AU to work closely with the UN in this regard;
20. Strongly encourages efforts to increase the percentage of female uniformed personnel deployed to AMISOM by the Troop and Police Contributing Countries, and urges AMISOM to ensure the full, effective and meaningful participation of women across its operations and to integrate a gender perspective throughout the delivery of its mandate;
Logistical and Financial Support
21. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to provide a logistical support package in full compliance of HRDDP, through UNSOS for UNSOM, AMISOM uniformed personnel and 70 AMISOM civilians, on the basis set out in operative paragraph 2 of resolution 2245 (2015), and to increase support to 13,900 Somali security forces, including an appropriate share of the state and federal police, who are formally integrated into the Somali security forces in line with the National Security Architecture and who are actively participating in joint or coordinated operations with AMISOM that directly implement the Transition Plan, reiterates the importance of AMISOM and the Somali security forces working jointly with UNSOS on the delivery of logistics support, including inter alia ensuring convoy and airfield security, protection of civilians and protecting main supply routes, and further requests the Secretary-General to expand UN support to Somali security forces to include training, equipment and mentorship to counter the threat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs);
22. Agrees with the Secretary-General that oversight and accountability, in particular compliance with HRDDP will be the cornerstone of the partnership between the United Nations, the AU, the FGS and the FMSs, requests the Secretary-General to ensure that any support provided to non-United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the HRDDP, and requests the FGS and AU to agree as soon as possible, a memorandum of understanding with the UN on the conditions of provision of UN support to Somali security forces;
23. Requests the Secretary-General to work closely with the AU in supporting the implementation of this resolution, including to provide technical and expert advice on the planning, deployment and strategic management of AMISOM in line with the mandate of the United Nations office to the AU;
24. Reiterates its call for new donors to provide support for:
(a) AMISOM through the provision of additional funding for troop stipends, equipment, and technical assistance for AMISOM, as recommended in the AU/UN funding report and to support the effective functioning of the CCTARC and the disbursement of amends;
(b) The United Nations Trust Fund in Support of the African Union Mission to Somalia and Somali security forces including funding directed to training equipment and funding and mentoring of the Somali security forces to counter the threat of improvised explosive devices, tackle the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, and to support state and federal police as set out in paragraph 21;
(c) National and state-level institutions for the development of the Somali security sector, including capacity building for the maritime police force in line with resolution 2246 (2015);
25. Underlines the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for AU-led peace support operations authorised by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter, and encourages the Secretary-General, AU and Member States to continue efforts to explore in earnest funding arrangements for AMISOM, bearing in mind the full range of options available to the United Nations, AU, the European Union, and to other partners, and considering the limitations of voluntary funding, in order to establish secure future funding arrangements for AMISOM;
26. Reiterates the urgency of full cooperation between the FGS and its FMS, notes initial steps taken to organise a meeting between the FGS and FMS focal points, and encourages all stakeholders to use this meeting and other opportunities to overcome their challenges to deliver on important national priorities;
27. Underlines the important steps taken by the FGS towards institution reform and capacity-building in the security sector, including continued progress on bio-metric registration of the SNA, payment of salaries through direct electronic transfers and progress made on joint operations including Operation Badbaado;
28. Calls on the FGS and FMS to fully support the state and federal police through effective training, equipping, and sustainment support, reiterates the critical role police play to sustaining SNA operations aimed at securing and holding territory and emphasises a professional and capable police force, able to contribute to providing security for civilian populations, is necessary for the FGS to fully implement the STP;
29. Calls upon Somali authorities, in coordination with AMISOM, international partners, and relevant United Nations entities, including UNMAS, to combat the illicit trade, transfer, destabilising accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons in all aspects, to prevent access of unauthorised recipients to all types of explosives and related materials in Somalia, and to ensure their safe and effective management and storage;
30. Calls on the Somali authorities to take further necessary political and technical steps to ensure one-person-one-vote elections by the end of 2020 or early 2021;
31. Reaffirms the important role of the full, equal, meaningful and effective participation of all Somalis, including women, youth, persons with disabilities, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and refugees in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, reconciliation processes, peacebuilding and elections and other political processes, and acknowledges the significant contribution that civil society can make in this regard;
32. Calls on Somali authorities to work with relevant partners to ensure protection for all from sexual and gender-based violence, including sexual exploitation and abuse and conflict-related sexual violence, to take appropriate steps to investigate allegations, strengthen legislation to support accountability in line with relevant resolutions, and to accelerate the implementation of the Joint Communiqué and the National Action Plan to combat sexual violence in conflict;
33. Calls on the Somali authorities to take action to prevent the killing, maiming and abduction of children, the recruitment and re-recruitment in accordance with the 2017 Working Group Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict in Somalia, and the use of sexual violence against children in armed conflict, and to hold those responsible to account, calls upon the Somali authorities to take appropriate measures to prevent attacks against civilian infrastructures including against schools and hospitals, cease detentions of all children on national security charges where this is in violation of applicable international law and instead to treat them primarily as victims, and further calls on the FGS to take action to fully implement their 2012 Action Plans, the 2014 standard operating procedures for the handover of children separated from armed groups, the 2018 Roadmap and the Working Group Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict in Somalia (S/AC.51/2017/2);
34. Reiterates its continued concern at the high number of refugees and IDPs, stresses that any evictions should be consistent with relevant national laws and international obligations welcomes the FGS’ ratification of the AU Kampala Convention, and stresses the importance the FGS fully implementing its provisions;
35. Recalls its resolution 2417 (2018) and expresses grave concern at the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Somalia and its impact on the people of Somalia, encourages all partners including donors to maintain humanitarian assistance in 2020 and to provide additional assistance to the broader COVID-19 response, strongly condemns indiscriminate attacks and attacks directed against humanitarian and medical personnel and civilian infrastructure, including by Al Shabaab, and any misuse or obstruction of humanitarian assistance, reiterates its demand that all parties allow full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to persons in need across Somalia in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and in line with humanitarian principles, and underlines the importance of proper accounting of international humanitarian support;
36. Requests the AU to keep the Security Council informed every 90 days, through the Secretary-General, on the implementation of AMISOM’s mandate, through no fewer than three written reports, with the first written report no later than 15 August 2020, and further requests in this regard, specific reporting on, 1) progress on joint operations in support of the Transition Plan including the use and effectiveness of coordination mechanisms, 2) proposals for revised tasks as per paragraph 12 (b), 3) accountability measures taken to address underperformance, including command and control, and conduct and discipline, 4) measures taken to protect civilians, 5) equipment review outcomes and use of force assets, and 6) staffing of the civilian component, and encourages timely reporting to allow for the Council to take into account AU perspectives on the situation in Somalia;
37. Requests the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council regularly informed on the implementation of this resolution, in his regular reports requested in paragraph 22 of resolution 2461 (2019), and in this regard further requests the Secretary-General to assess in his regular reports,1) progress achieved on the priority measures referenced in paragraph 2 of this resolution, 2) implementation of HRDDP, and 3) UNSOS support to AMISOM, UNSOM and the Somali security forces;
38. Reaffirms the Security Council’s intention to keep the configuration of AMISOM under review, requests the Secretary-General to conduct an independent assessment, by 10 January 2021, and present options to the Security Council on international support to the whole security environment in Somalia post 2021, including the role of the UN, AU and international partners, and after consultations with the FGS, AU and international partners on their respective views;
39. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

The situation in Somalia. Letter from the President of the Council on the voting outcome (S/2020/459) and voting details (S/2020/466)
Related with resolutions
2111 2182 2245 2246 2417 2461 2472
Quoted in resolutions
2540 2551 2563 2568
Security Council Composition