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Resolution 2592

The situation in Somalia.

Abstract

Resolution 2592 (2021)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 8846th meeting, on 30 August 2021
The Security Council,
Recalling its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia,
Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence, and unity of Somalia, and underscoring the importance of working to prevent the destabilising effects of regional disputes from spilling over into Somalia,
Welcoming the agreements reached between the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and Somalia’s Federal Member States (FMS) on 17 September 2020 and 27 May 2021, urging the FGS and FMS to implement these agreements and conduct inclusive elections in 2021, regretting that it was not possible to agree to conduct direct elections in 2020/21, and reiterating its expectation that future elections in Somalia ensure the representation of all Somalis, in line with Somalia’s long-standing commitments to conduct one-person-one-vote elections,
Expressing concern at the violent clashes between and among Somali Security Forces (SSF), opposition forces and clan-aligned militias in February and April 2021, reiterating the importance of peaceful dispute resolution both in the run-up to elections in 2021 and beyond, and reaffirming the importance of inclusive politics, and democratic elections in ensuring long-term peace and stability in Somalia,
Reiterating the importance of dialogue and local reconciliation processes for stability in Somalia, reaffirming the importance of both the FGS and FMS engaging in constructive dialogue to de-escalate tensions between them, and encouraging additional technical and political discussions between Somalia and “Somaliland” to build confidence and strengthen political coordination,
Reiterating that the successful and peaceful conduct of elections in 2021 as planned and agreed can enable Somalia to refocus on addressing pressing problems, including among other things, humanitarian needs, the threat posed by Al-Shabaab, trafficking of weapons and ammunition, floods, drought, and COVID-19 and enable all parties to advance Somalia’s national priorities,
Expressing concern about continued delays in consolidating Somalia’s federal system, underscoring the importance of progress on national priorities, including the National Security Architecture, the Somalia Transition Plan (2021) (STP), the ninth National Development Plan and the jointly-agreed Mutual Accountability Framework (MAF) (2019), and reaching agreement on a federated police and justice system, fiscal federalism, power- and resource-sharing, and the constitutional review, in this regard welcoming the roadmap agreed on 27 May 2021, urging the FGS and FMS to implement it without delay, and underscoring the importance of cooperation and collaboration if Somalia is to make progress on its national priorities and on wider political, security, social, economic and development reforms necessary to meet the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative Completion Point,
Welcoming the United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework 2021–2025 which represents the commitment of the FGS and the United Nations to work together to achieve peace, stability and prosperity for all Somalis in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals,
Underscoring the importance of a holistic approach to counter terrorism and violent extremism conducive to terrorism, conducted in accordance with applicable international law, as well as efforts to address the governance, security, human rights, humanitarian, development, and socioeconomic dimensions of the challenge, including youth employment and the eradication of poverty,
Emphasising the essential role of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) in supporting the FGS and FMS and other relevant actors through the provision of strategic advice and good offices, capacity building, and the coordination of international partners’ support, including with respect to elections support, underscoring that this mandate is complementary to the mandates of the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), the United Nations Country Team, and support provided by other international partners, and underlining the importance of coordination among international partners,
Expressing its full support for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNSOM, and for the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia and Head of AMISOM, and encouraging efforts to further strengthen relations between the FGS and the United Nations and the African Union (AU),
Welcoming the FGS’ continued engagement with the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission in order to further bolster international support for Somalia’s peacebuilding objectives,
Reiterating that the immediate and pressing threat to the stability and security of Somalia, to the Somali people and to Somalia’s neighbours is posed by Al-Shabaab, condemning in the strongest possible terms their attacks in Somalia and beyond, expressing deep concern at the loss of civilian life from these attacks, and reiterating its determination to support comprehensive efforts to reduce the threat posed by Al-Shabaab in Somalia,
Welcoming the response of the international community to address instability and insecurity in Somalia, including violence perpetrated by Al-Shabaab and armed opposition groups, commending the United Nations’ and AU’s leadership of this response and paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifices made by AMISOM and SSF personnel in the fight against Al-Shabaab,
Emphasising the importance of a comprehensive approach to peacebuilding and sustaining peace in Somalia, particularly through the prevention of conflict, addressing the root causes of conflict, and undertaking political, economic and security reforms and promoting social development, and further emphasising the importance of regional and international cooperation to combat arms trafficking, counter terrorism and combat terrorist finances and illicit financial flows,
Reiterating its objective of transferring responsibility for security to Somali authorities, with the aim of Somalia taking the lead in 2021, and achieving full responsibility by the end of 2023, welcoming the publication of the STP in February 2021, underlining the need to accelerate implementation of the STP and security sector reforms and expressing concern that the lack of sustained dialogue on these issues between the FGS and FMS has delayed progress,
Noting the publication of the United Nations-mandated Independent Assessment in January 2021, anticipating the publication of the African Union-mandated Independent Assessment, emphasising the urgent need for coordinated engagement among all stakeholders, especially the United Nations, AU, FGS and donors, on arrangements for security support from 2022 onwards, as outlined in resolution 2568 (2021) and looking forward to the Secretary-General’s proposal, produced jointly with the AU and in consultation with the FGS and donors on the strategic objectives, size and composition of a reconfigured African Union mission from 2022,
Expressing grave concern at ongoing humanitarian crises in Somalia as a result of protracted conflict, recurring events including drought, flooding and locust infestation, and recognising that the COVID-19 pandemic presents an additional and profound challenge to Somalia’s health system, socioeconomic and humanitarian situation, and social cohesion,
Expressing concern at the number of Somali refugees and increasing number of internally displaced persons (IDPs), as well as their increasing humanitarian and protection needs, welcoming in this regard the recent adoption of a National Durable Solutions Strategy (2020–2024), and calling on the Somali authorities to continue to implement the AU Convention for the Protection and Assistance of IDPs in Africa (the Kampala Convention) and to make progress on their commitments to deliver durable solutions for displaced persons in Somalia,
Recalling the October 2020 United Nations Protection of Civilians Report and reaffirming its strong condemnation of the deliberate targeting of civilians, including humanitarian personnel, and civilian objects in situations of armed conflict, as well as the indiscriminate use of weapons in populated areas and their consequences for the civilian population, calling upon all parties to the conflict in Somalia to refrain from such practices in accordance with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, welcoming the efforts by the Somali authorities, the United Nations, and the response and generous support by donors, encouraging further cooperation with international and national humanitarian actors to relieve immediate need, and underlining the need for greater and diverse investment in resilience, including for IDPs, in order to reduce long term need and support Somalia to achieve sustainable development,
Expressing deep concern about the serious humanitarian threat posed to civilians by, explosive remnants of war (ERW), including landmines, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in Somalia, which causes serious social and economic consequences for the population of Somalia, and to personnel participating in law enforcement, humanitarian, peacekeeping, rehabilitation and clearance programmes and operations, recognising that mine action contributes to the protection of civilians and supports stabilisation and peacebuilding efforts, underlining the need to accelerate measures to strengthen capacities to mitigate against the threat of landmines, ERW and IEDs in Somalia and recalling that Member States are called upon to undertake appropriate measures to promote the exercise of vigilance by their nationals, persons subject to their jurisdiction and firms incorporated in their territory or subject to their jurisdiction that are involved in the sale, supply, or transfer of explosive precursors and materials to Somalia that may be used in the manufacture of IEDs,
Recalling its resolution 2532 (2020) and 2565 (2021) demanding a general and immediate cessation of hostilities in all situations on its agenda and reiterating its demand that all parties to armed conflict engage immediately in a durable, extensive and sustained humanitarian pause to facilitate, inter alia, the equitable, safe and unhindered delivery and distribution of COVID-19 vaccinations in areas of armed conflict,
Condemning continued violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, expressing deep concern in particular at violations and abuses committed against children and those involving sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict situations, recognising that women and girls are disproportionately affected by these violations and abuses in Somalia, recalling the 2020 Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict (S/2020/174) and urging their implementation and the swift enactment of the Somali Child Rights Act, further recalling resolution 1325 (2000) and all subsequent resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, and urging the FGS to continue to uphold commitments to ensure equal opportunities for the realisation of women’s political rights, and their full, equal and meaningful participation in public spheres, leadership and decision-making, and underscoring the need to respect, protect and promote human rights, end impunity, and hold accountable those responsible for violations or abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, and reaffirming its support for the United Nations’ zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse,
Further recognising the adverse effects of climate change, environmental degradation, other ecological changes, natural disasters, among other factors, on the stability of Somalia, including through floods, drought, desertification, land degradation, and food insecurity, and recalling its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2011/15,
1. Decides to extend until 31 May 2022 UNSOM’s mandate as set out in paragraph 1 of resolution 2158 (2014);
2. Strongly condemns continued attacks by the terrorist group Al-Shabaab, including attacks in the region, on the United Nations Compound in Mogadishu and AMISOM facilities, and urges the Somali authorities, AMISOM and the United Nations to work closely on strengthening safety and security for the United Nations and AU facilities and staff;
3. Requests UNSOM to maintain and strengthen its presence across Somalia, subject to United Nations security requirements and as the security situation allows, welcomes the strong relationship between UNSOM, the United Nations Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS), the United Nations Country Team and AMISOM, and underlines the importance of all entities continuing to strengthen the relationship further at all levels, including through the Senior Leadership Coordination Forum;
4. Expresses its deep appreciation for UNSOM’s support to the FGS as set out in paragraph 1 of its resolution 2158 (2014), in particular with regard to the development of inclusive politics and preparations for the elections in 2021, the constitutional review process, mediation, prevention and resolution of conflicts, the development of a federated police and justice system, strengthening the rule of law and security sector reform, and coordinating capacity-building support on anti-corruption issues;
5. Recalls the need for Somalia and its partners to take a coordinated and cohesive approach towards Somali-led political and security reforms;
6. Further decides that UNSOM should continue to coordinate United Nations efforts, maximising joint approaches and joint programming in relevant areas, in full cooperation with the FGS and FMS, and with a particular focus on the following tasks:
(a) provide support to the FGS and the FMS to accelerate Somali Government-led inclusive politics, which ensures the participation of all stakeholders, including women, youth and all Somali clans, and reach political agreement, in order to deliver shared political and security commitments, through inclusive regular high-level dialogue at all levels between the FGS and all FMS;
(b) provide support to efforts undertaken by the FGS and the FMS, including through the National Reconciliation Framework, to pursue inter- and intra-clan reconciliation at the local, regional and national level, as the basis for long-term stability in Somalia, and provide support to efforts to strengthen the dialogue between the FGS and Somaliland;
(c) provide support, through the exercise of its good offices and through technical, operational and logistical assistance to the FGS, FMS, the Somali Parliament, the Technical Electoral Support Team (TEST) the Federal Electoral Implementation Team (FIET), the State Electoral Implementation Teams (SEITs), the Election Dispute Resolution Committee and any other stakeholders with an agreed role in election delivery, in collaboration with UNSOS, for the conduct of elections in accordance with the framework agreed on 27 May 2021, continue to support efforts to make progress towards the objective of universal suffrage elections, in consultation with FGS and FMS authorities, provide good offices, technical and operational support, subject to available resources, to the constitutionally mandated electoral management bodies for the conduct of free, fair, inclusive and transparent one-person, one-vote elections at the federal member state and district levels, in preparation for holding such elections at the federal level in 2025, and support strengthened coordination of international electoral support to Somalia;
(d) provide technical advice and capacity-building to support the FGS and FMS in their efforts to enable the full, equal and meaningful participation, involvement and representation of women at all levels of decision-making, in the context of elections and peacebuilding and reconciliation processes, as envisaged in the Somali Women’s Charter, including by supporting Somali commitments to ensure that women fill at least 30 percent of the seats in both Houses of Parliament and continue its advocacy for increased investment in the Women, Peace and Security agenda;
(e) provide technical advice and capacity-building to support the FGS and FMS in their efforts to enable the full, equal and meaningful participation of all Somalis, including, youth, all Somali clans, persons with disabilities, IDPs and Somali refugees in peace and reconciliation efforts, conflict resolution, peacebuilding and elections, and increasing participation and empowerment of civil society, minority communities and other marginalised groups at all decision-making levels;
(f) provide support to the FGS and the FMS to accelerate implementation of security sector reforms, in conjunction with international partners, the AU and AMISOM, and UNSOS, including a coherent National Security Architecture with a military, police and civilian component, delivery of the STP, agreement on a federated justice and corrections model, the establishment and strengthening of effective, accountable and constitutional rule of law institutions including the integration of regional forces, the transition of the Somali Police Force to a Federal Police service and the development of a supporting legal framework and support AMISOM’s military, police, and civilian components in enabling Somalia to take full responsibility for its security in the future, with the aim of Somalia taking the lead in 2021, and achieving full responsibility by the end of 2023 in line with the STP and taking into consideration the situation on the ground;
(g) provide coordination and strategic advice to improve the operation of the Comprehensive Approach to Security and collaboration between the FGS and international partners, as agreed in the Security Pact at the 2017 London Somalia Conference;
(h) provide support to United Nations entities to ensure system-wide implementation of the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy across all United Nations support to AMISOM and the Somali security sector, to include a strong focus on strengthening engagement with the Government, including on implementation of mitigation, compliance and accountability measures;
(i) provide technical advice and capacity-building support to the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission and to the FGS, in particular the Ministry for Women and Human Rights Development, to promote and protect human rights in Somalia, including to protect women and girls from sexual and gender based violence, to promote accountability for human rights violations and abuses, including through working with civil society, reinforcing and aligning human rights efforts across humanitarian, security-related, and development agendas, and monitor and include information on the human rights situation in the Secretary-General’s reporting in accordance with paragraph 16;
(j) provide support, within its mandate and existing resources, to the FGS in the implementation of the MAF for Somalia;
(k) provide support to the FGS to implement Somalia’s National Strategy and Action Plan for Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism, in order to strengthen Somalia’s capacity to prevent and counter terrorism, including Somalia’s capacity to address conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, in compliance with Somalia’s obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, international human rights law and international refugee law, and provide support to Somalia’s efforts to become a state party to the international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols;
(l) provide support and strategic policy advice to bolster the FGS’s ability to deliver services and attract investment, and help the FGS to establish frameworks for managing resources and power sharing, in order to enable Somalia to strengthen revenue mobilisation, resource allocation, budget execution, and anti-corruption measures, as set out in the New Partnership for Somalia;
(m) support Somalia’s efforts to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, working closely with the United Nations Country Team, provide strategic advice to institutional capacity building in line with the Somalia National Development Plan and the United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework, collaborate with the international financial institutions to support the mobilisation of economic and development assistance, and ensure effective and integrated cooperation of United Nations agencies, funds and programmes and promote cooperation with relevant partners, with a view to making maximum use of development financing in Somalia, including in response to climate change, flooding, drought, locusts and the COVID-19 pandemic, including the safe, effective and equitable distribution of vaccines;
(n) work closely with United Nations Country Team, International Financial Institutions, and all relevant stakeholders to ensure that international support to the FGS and FMS is conflict-sensitive and maximises policy and operational coherence based on a shared understanding of risks and opportunities for peace and development;
7. Calls on the FGS and FMS to organise free, fair, credible and inclusive elections in line with the 17 September 2020 and 27 May 2021 agreements without further delay, and urges the FGS and FMS to finalise outstanding preparations to this end;
8. Calls upon the FGS and the FMS to enhance as a matter of urgency broad-based consultations and consensus building through consultative mechanisms at all levels and with the two Houses of Parliament on national priorities, including the implementation of the National Security Architecture, the delivery of the STP, delivery of further social and economic reforms, the review of the Constitution, and implementation of timely elections in line with the state-building roadmap set out in the 27 May 2021 agreement;
9. Welcomes planned direct elections in Puntland and urges the FGS and FMS to create a conducive political and security climate for inclusive elections across Somalia and at all levels to foster political pluralism, ensure political space for the role, rights and responsibilities of legally constituted political parties, including opposition parties, uphold the rights of freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly and movement, including the ability of independent journalists to operate freely, and condemn hate speech and incitement to violence;
10. Expresses its concern about all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including those involving sexual and gender-based violence in conflict, further calls upon all parties to comply with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, as applicable, in relation to the protection of the civilian population, and civilian objects, and further reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including against journalists and other media professionals and associated personnel, emphasises the importance of protecting and promoting the right to freedom of expression;
11. (a) Expresses concern about the high number of instances of the “six grave violations” against children documented in the Secretary-General’s annual report (S/2021/437), demands all parties to the conflict to take appropriate measures
(i) to end and prevent violations and abuses against children, including the continued recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, in accordance with obligations under international law;
(ii) to identify those responsible for such violations and abuses;
(iii) to consider primarily as victims those children who have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups as per the Paris Principles endorsed by the FGS; and
(iv) to cease detention of all children on national security charges where it is in violation of applicable international law;
(b) calls upon the FGS to implement fully the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (UNCRC), the two Action Plans signed by the FGS in 2012 to end and prevent the recruitment and use of child soldiers and the killing and maiming of children, the Somali National Army Command Order on the Protection of Children’s Rights Before, During and After Operations, the roadmap signed in 2019 and the Standard Operating Procedures on the handover of children; and
(c) underscores the need to strengthen the legal and operational framework for the protection of children in Somalia, including by Somalia becoming a party to the Optional Protocols to the UNCRC and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child;
12. Further strongly condemns any misuse or obstruction of humanitarian assistance, including attacks against humanitarian and medical personnel, and against their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities in violation of international law, and demands that all parties allow and facilitate, in accordance with applicable international humanitarian law, full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for the timely delivery of aid to persons in need across Somalia in line with the humanitarian principles, including by dismantling illegal checkpoints and removing administrative hurdles, and underlines the importance of proper accounting in international humanitarian support;
13. Calls upon the FGS, the FMS and all relevant actors to facilitate, support and, where appropriate, implement durable solutions for internal displacement, including local integration or resettlement, and to create the conditions conducive to the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and IDPs, in consultation with them and with the support of the international community;
14. (a) Underlines the need for the FGS to establish and operationalise the National Human Rights Commission, accelerate the appointment of Commissioners, and establish and operationalise the Constitutional Court and the Judicial Service Commission in line with the Provisional Constitution and the relevant legislation;
(b) calls on the FGS to promote, protect and ensure the protection and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and persons belonging to minority groups and to implement legislation aimed at protecting human rights and investigating and prosecuting perpetrators of crimes involving violations or abuses of human rights, violations of international humanitarian law, and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict situations;
(c) further calls on the FGS to ensure that sexual offences legislation is compatible with its obligations under international law and commitments on the protection of children and women;
(d) urges the FGS, with the support of the United Nations, to accelerate the implementation of the Joint Communiqué and the adoption and implementation of the new National Action Plan to Combat Sexual Violence in Conflict;
(e) commends the FGS for its commitment to fulfilling its reporting obligations under human rights treaty bodies; and
15. Requests the United Nations, the FGS and FMS to consider the adverse implications of climate change, environmental degradation, other ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, in their programmes in Somalia, including by undertaking comprehensive risk assessments and risk management strategies relating to these factors, and requests the Secretary-General to provide an update in mandated reporting as appropriate;
16. Affirms that it shall keep the situation in Somalia under continuing review and be prepared to review the provisions contained in this resolution, at any time as may be necessary, in light of the evolution of the political developments and the situation in the country;
17. Requests the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council regularly informed on the implementation of this resolution, and to identify and report on progress towards achieving key political benchmarks, in particular progress towards elections, including through oral updates and no fewer than four written reports, with the first written report due by 15 November and every 90 days thereafter;
18. Requests the Secretary-General, following consultations with the FGS to undertake a strategic review of UNSOM after the election process has concluded and after the anticipated reconfiguration of security support to Somalia, to include recommendations for clearly defined, measurable and realistic benchmarks to track UNSOM’s timely execution and achievement of its mandate and to initiate the development of an Integrated Strategic Framework, and to report to the Security Council by the end of March 2022;
19. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

Topics
Somalia, Terrorism, COVID-19
Year
2021
Title
The situation in Somalia.
Related with resolutions
1325 2158 2532 2565 2568
Quoted in resolutions
2628 2632
Security Council Composition
CHN FRA RUS GBR USA VNM TUN VCT NER EST IND IRL KEN MEX NOR