Search engine for the United Nations Security Council Resolutions

Resolution 2657

The situation in Somalia (UNSOM).


Resolution 2657 (2022)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 9177th meeting, on 31 October 2022
The Security Council,
Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia,
Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia,
Encouraging Somalia to seize the opportunity it now has to make renewed progress in implementing its national priorities, emphasising the importance of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and Federal Member States (FMS) working together to achieve this, reiterating the importance of inclusive dialogue and local reconciliation processes for stability in Somalia, and underscoring that the full, equal and meaningful participation of women will help to progress national priorities, and support reconciliation, security and transition from international security support, in line with the Somalia Transition Plan (STP) and National Security Architecture,
Encouraging resumption of dialogue between the FGS and “Somaliland” to build confidence and strengthen political coordination,
Commending the support provided by the African Union through the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) now the African Union Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS); by the United Nations through the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), the United Nations Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) and through its agencies, funds and programmes; by the Panel of Experts on Somalia both to Somalia and the 751 Committee, and by Somalia’s bilateral partners,
Emphasising its fundamental objective is to maintain peace and stability in Somalia by supporting state-building and peace-building, and through the advancement of Somalia’s national priorities,
Encouraging the FGS to continue engaging with the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission to enhance international support for Somalia’s peace-building objectives,
Expressing grave concern that the terrorist group Al-Shabaab continues to pose a serious threat to the peace, security and stability of Somalia and the region, and further expressing concern at the continued presence in Somalia of affiliates linked to ISIL/Da’esh,
Condemning in the strongest possible terms terrorist attacks in Somalia and neighbouring states, expressing deep concern at the loss of civilian life from these attacks, and reiterating its determination to support comprehensive efforts to reduce the threat posed by Al-Shabaab,
Underscoring the importance of a holistic approach to counter terrorism and violent extremism conducive to terrorism, conducted in accordance with applicable international law, as well as efforts to address the governance, security, human rights, humanitarian, development, and socioeconomic dimensions of the problem, including youth employment and the eradication of poverty, and emphasising the importance of regional and international cooperation to counter terrorism, disrupt terrorist finances and illicit financial flows, and stop arms trafficking,
Commending the role played by the FGS, member states, and regional organisations to suppress piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Somalia, and taking note of UNSOM’s facilitation of a Somalia-led, coordinated approach in developing Somalia’s maritime governance sector, including through the formation of the Somali Navy and Coast Guard Working Group, and support of Somalia’s maritime institutions,
Expressing serious concern about the humanitarian situation in Somalia, encouraging States to scale-up their humanitarian support to Somalia, and calling for all parties to the conflict to allow and facilitate, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law, including applicable international humanitarian law, and in a manner consistent with the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance (United Nations General Assembly resolution 46/182), including humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence, the rapid and unhindered provision of humanitarian assistance necessary to support persons in need across Somalia,
Strongly condemning the deliberate targeting of civilians, including those who are humanitarian personnel, and civilian objects on situations of conflict, as well as the indiscriminate use of weapons in populated areas and their consequences for the civilian population, calling upon all parties to the conflict in Somalia to refrain from such practices in accordance with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law,
Highlighting the importance of FGS and FMS coordination with OCHA to ensure a needs-based distribution of humanitarian aid, including in-kind food aid, and appropriate targeting of marginalised groups, which may face specific barriers in accessing assistance and protection, in support of the UN Famine Prevention Plan, and collaboration with the UN to develop an inter-ministerial strategy for enabling proper adaptation, reducing the risks and mitigating the impacts of climate change in Somalia,
Recognising the adverse effects of climate change, environmental degradation, other ecological changes, natural disasters, among other factors on the stability of Somalia, including through floods, drought, desertification, land degradation and food insecurity and recalling its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2011/15, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement,
Noting the importance of effective, strategic communications to the implementation of UNSOM’s mandate, particularly concerning peace-building, state-building, reconciliation, conflict prevention, countering violent extremism conducive to terrorism, civic education, women’s inclusion in political processes, human rights protection, and the youth, peace and security agenda and emphasising the need to continue to enhance UNSOM’s capability in this regard,
1. Recalls its authorisation of ATMIS in resolution 2628 (2022), and commends the renewed cooperation between all stakeholders to implement its mandate in support of the Somalia Transition Plan (STP) and National Security Architecture, and empower Somalia to assume progressively greater responsibility for its own security;
2. Welcomes the strategic review of UNSOM and endorses the proposed benchmarks set out in the annex to its report (S/2022/716), and the recommendations set out in section V of the report;
3. Welcomes the cooperation between UNSOM, UNSOS, the United Nations Country Team and ATMIS, underlines the importance of collaborative working between the United Nations, African Union, Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), other multilateral and bilateral partners and Somalia and encourages all entities to continue to strengthen the relationship further at all levels, including through the Senior Leadership Coordination Forum;
4. Decides to extend until 31 October 2023 UNSOM’s mandate and tasks in Somalia as set out in resolution 2158 (2014) and resolution 2592 (2021);
5. Notes the United Nations Department of Operational Support’s Environment Strategy (Phase II), which emphasises good stewardship of resources and a positive legacy of the mission, and identifies the goal of expanded renewable energy use in missions to enhance safety and security, save costs, offer efficiencies and benefit the mission;
6. Requests UNSOM to maintain and strengthen its presence across Somalia, and to continue to strengthen its cooperation with Somalia and ATMIS, subject to United Nations security measures and as the security situation allows and recognises that the current political and security context in Somalia will affect UNSOM’s ability to fulfil its mandate;
7. Recognises the renewed operations against Al-Shabaab, and encourages UNSOM to support Somalia to:
a. ensure that plans are in place to protect civilians and communities in areas which are the focus of military operations, prior to, during and after engagements,
b. accelerate implementation of the National Stabilisation Strategy and State-level Stabilisation Plans,
c. support Somali civilian leadership, ownership and oversight in the planning and coordination of stabilisation efforts,
d. promote expansion of a governance and service delivery to areas and districts where fragility persists, including in support of the STP and relevant joint-planning processes,
e. ensure timely, balanced support to areas newly, or recently recovered from Al-Shabaab;
8. Encourages the FGS to deepen cooperation and collaboration at all levels, to:
a. implement the National Security Architecture, deliver the STP, advance political, national and local reconciliation, make progress towards finalising the constitution, and in the fight against Al-Shabaab to secure peace and security across Somalia,
b. create a conducive political and security environment for more inclusive democratic processes across Somalia and at all levels to foster political pluralism and take steps to include legally constituted political parties, including opposition parties,
c. promote the full equal and meaningful participation of women at all levels of decision making including in the context of peacebuilding, reconciliation processes and security sector reform,
d. promote the participation of persons belonging to minority clans and underrepresented groups, youth and persons with disabilities,
e. uphold the rights of freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly and movement, including the ability of journalists to operate freely, and condemn hate speech and incitement to violence; and,
f. enhance civilian oversight of their security apparatus, to continue to adopt and implement appropriate vetting procedures of all defence and security personnel, including human rights vetting, and to investigate and, as appropriate, prosecute individuals responsible for violations of international law, including international humanitarian law and human rights law, and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict situations, and in this context recalls the importance of the Secretary-General’s Human Rights and Due Diligence Policy in relation to the support provided by the United Nations to Somali security forces and ATMIS;
9. Expresses its concern about all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including those involving sexual and gender-based violence in conflict, further calls upon all parties to comply with their obligations under international law, as applicable, including international humanitarian law, including in relation to the protection of the civilian population, and civilian objects, further reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, and emphasises the importance of protecting and promoting the right to freedom of expression and protecting journalists and other media professionals and associated personnel;
10. Expresses concern about the high number of verified instances of the “six grave violations” against children documented in the Secretary-General’s annual report on children and armed conflict (S/2022/493), and set out in the Secretary-General’s report on children and armed conflict in Somalia (S/2022/397), and the high number of grave violations attributed to Al-Shabaab, and:
a. demands all parties to the conflict take appropriate measures to:
i. end and prevent violations and abuses against children, including the continued recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, in accordance with obligations under international law;
ii. identify those responsible for such violations and abuses and hold perpetrators accountable;
iii. consider primarily as victims those children who are associated with or have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups as per the Paris Principles endorsed by the FGS; and
iv. cease detention of all children on national security charges where it is in violation of applicable international law;
b. calls upon the FGS to: implement fully the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (UNCRC), the two Action Plans signed by the FGS in 2012 the roadmap signed in 2019 and the Standard Operating Procedures for the reception and handover of children, strengthen the legal and operational framework for the protection of children in Somalia, and ensure that national legislation pertaining to children, is compatible with its obligations under international law and commitments on the protection of children;
11. Strongly condemns any misuse or obstruction of humanitarian assistance, including violence, attacks and threats against humanitarian and medical personnel, and against their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities in violation of international law, and:
a. demands that all parties allow and facilitate, in accordance with applicable international humanitarian law, full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for the timely delivery of aid to persons in need across Somalia in line with the humanitarian principles, including for the implementation of the Drought Response and Famine Prevention Plan and revised Humanitarian Response Plan and by:
i. dismantling illegal checkpoints,
ii. removing administrative and bureaucratic restrictions and,
iii. protecting humanitarian actors and communities from any retribution or punitive measures for seeking to negotiate access with parties to the conflict or providing humanitarian or medical assistance consistent with international humanitarian law,
b. underlines the importance of transparency and accountability in the provision of humanitarian support;
c. recognises the role FMS, clan and religious leaders can play in enabling and negotiating humanitarian access across Somalia, encourages continued support for international and national humanitarian and local leaders, as well as protection from any form of retribution for seeking access to areas outside of government control for humanitarian purposes; and
d. recalling that the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) may designate individuals or entities that engage in obstruction of the delivery of humanitarian assistance to Somalia, or access to, or distribution of, humanitarian assistance in Somalia;
12. Calls upon the FGS, the FMS and all relevant actors to facilitate, support and, where appropriate, implement durable solutions for internal displacement, including local integration or resettlement, and to create the conditions conducive to the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and IDPs, in consultation with them and in line with applicable national frameworks and international obligations, with the support of the international community;
13. Recalls the need for the FGS to continue to establish and operationalise the National Human Rights Commission, the Constitutional Court and the Judicial Service Commission in line with the Provisional Constitution and the relevant legislation, and calls on the FGS to:
a. promote and protect the rights of persons with disabilities and persons belonging to minority groups and to implement legislation aimed at protecting human rights and investigating and prosecuting perpetrators of crimes involving violations or abuses of human rights, violations of international humanitarian law, and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict situations;
b. ensure that sexual offences legislation is compatible with its obligations under international law and commitments on the protection of children and women;
c. with the support of the United Nations, accelerate the implementation of the Joint Communiqué and the adoption and implementation of the new National Action Plan to Combat Sexual Violence in Conflict;
14. Highlights the importance of the United Nations, the FGS and FMS considering the adverse implications of climate change, environmental degradation, other ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, in their programmes in Somalia, including by undertaking comprehensive risk assessments and risk management strategies relating to these factors, acknowledging the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement;
15. Requests the following reports from the Secretary-General:
a. regular updates on the situation in Somalia and implementation of UNSOM’s mandate, to include updates against the benchmarks outlined in the strategic review, including through briefings to the Security Council and no fewer than three written reports, with the first report due by 15 February 2023, and every 120 days thereafter; and
b. an update in due course on progress made in implementing the recommendations set out in the strategic review (S/2022/716);
16. Affirms that it shall keep the situation in Somalia under review and be prepared to review the provisions contained in this resolution, at any time as may be necessary, in light of the evolution of political developments and the situation in the country;
17. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

The situation in Somalia (UNSOM).
Related with resolutions
751 2158 2592 2628
Quoted in resolutions
Security Council Composition