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Resolution 2687

The situation in Somalia (ATMIS).


Resolution 2687 (2023)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 9359th meeting, on 27 June 2023
The Security Council,
Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia,
Reaffirming its full respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia,
Recalling that the Government of Somalia has primary responsibility for ensuring security within Somalia, and recognising the Government of Somalia’s request for continued international support to enable it to achieve progressively its aim of a secure, stable, peaceful, united and democratic country,
Commending the contribution to peace and security in Somalia made by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and its successor, the African Union Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS), since the beginning of operations in Somalia 16 years ago,
Commending all those who have served in AMISOM and ATMIS with honour, and paying tribute to those who gave their lives in the pursuit of the mandates of these Missions,
Expressing grave concern that the terrorist group Al-Shabaab continues to pose a serious threat to the peace, security and stability of Somalia and the region, and noting its increased use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs),
Expressing grave concern at the continued presence in Somalia of affiliates linked to ISIL/Da’esh,
Condemning in the strongest possible terms terrorist attacks in Somalia and neighbouring states, expressing deep concern at the loss of civilian life from these attacks, and the risk to international forces as demonstrated by the attacks on ATMIS bases operated and staffed by Burundian and Ugandan personnel in May 2022 and May 2023 respectively, reiterating its determination to support comprehensive efforts to reduce the threat posed by Al-Shabaab, and urging Somalia’s leaders to work together on the fight against terrorism,
Condemning in the strongest terms all attacks, provocations and incitement to violence against ATMIS personnel, and United Nations and associated personnel, calling on all parties to respect fully their obligations under international law, and stressing that those responsible for these acts should be held accountable, and encouraging the African Union, its Member States and the Government of Somalia to take all appropriate measures to ensure the best level possible of safety and security of ATMIS personnel,
Welcoming the progress made by Somalia in the fight against Al-Shabaab, including towards disruption of its financial operations, congratulating Somalia for the recovery of territory from Al-Shabaab, and underlining the importance of preserving the security gains in Somalia and enhancing the support provided to the Somali security forces and ATMIS,
Looking forward to the completion of the transition of responsibilities from ATMIS to the Government of Somalia that will allow for the planned exit of ATMIS from Somalia by December 2024, as this will represent a significant milestone in Somalia’s recovery from civil war and insurgency,
Expressing its commitment to continue to support Somalia to achieve lasting and durable peace and security,
Welcoming the support provided to Somalia, both to-date by troop- and police-contributing countries, and planned through the Frontline States initiative,
Underscoring its desire to support peace and security across the Horn of Africa and to support regional efforts to address threats to peace and security including terrorism and violent extremism conducive to terrorism and the specific threat posed by Al-Shabaab,
Emphasising the importance of capacity building and security sector reform to enable integrated Somali security forces and institutions to respond effectively to security threats, and further emphasising the importance of coordination between the Government of Somalia, the United Nations, African Union, and Somalia’s international partners to ensure capacity building is joined-up, and enables Somalia to assume full responsibility for its security,
Recognising that military action alone will not be sufficient to resolve threats to peace and security in Somalia, emphasising that the protection of civilians is critical to build sustainable peace, and reiterating the need to pursue a holistic approach that reinforces the foundations of peace and stability, in line with priorities defined by the Government of Somalia including through enhancing:
(i) effective governance and public administration,
(ii) anti-corruption,
(iii) preventing organised crime,
(iv) the rule of law,
(v) justice and law enforcement,
(vi) efforts to counter terrorism,
(vii) efforts to promote terrorist disengagement and defections,
(viii) preventing and countering violent extremism conducive to terrorism,
(ix) security sector reform, and
(x) inclusive politics and reconciliation,
Noting the potential of international cooperation and support for peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction and development in Somalia, if provided in line with priorities defined by the Somali authorities, and further noting in this regard the African Union Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development (AUPCRD) policy and the AUPCRD dedicated centre in Cairo,
Recalling its resolution 1325 (2000) and subsequent resolutions, recognising the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, and stressing the importance of the full, equal and meaningful participation and involvement of women in all efforts at all levels for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, and the need to increase the role of women in decision-making and leadership regarding conflict prevention and resolution, as envisaged in the Somali Women’s Charter,
Condemning violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law in Somalia, calling on all parties to act in full compliance with their obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law, as applicable,
Expressing serious concern about the humanitarian situation in Somalia, and calling for all parties to the conflict to allow and facilitate, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law, including applicable international humanitarian law, and in a manner consistent with the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance (United Nations General Assembly resolution 46/182), including humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence the provision of humanitarian assistance necessary to support civilians in need,
Emphasising the need for adequate risk assessment and risk management strategies by the Government of Somalia and the United Nations, of climate change, other ecological changes, natural disasters and other factors on the stability of Somalia,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
Part 1: Somalia
1. Underscores that the Government of Somalia has primary responsibility for protecting civilians in Somalia, and underlines the importance of protecting civilians in accordance with relevant provisions of international human rights law and international humanitarian law;
2. Encourages Somalia to maintain the momentum in its fight against Al-Shabaab;
3. Urges the Government of Somalia to prioritise early recovery, stabilisation and reconciliation in areas liberated from Al-Shabaab and encourages it to plan for these activities in preparation for and alongside its continued offensive operations against Al-Shabaab;
4. Demands that all parties allow and facilitate, in accordance with applicable international humanitarian law, full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for the timely delivery of aid to persons in need across Somalia in line with the humanitarian principles;
5. Encourages the Government of Somalia to share information about security operations with ATMIS and UNSOS to enable early and effective planning for required support in line with their mandates and authorisations;
6. Recalls paragraphs 3, 9 and 14 of resolution 2628 (2022);
7. Notes the Government of Somalia has revised its National Security Architecture, and encourages it to:
a. develop a costed version to support sustainability and affordability planning as well as to encourage donor support;
b. further develop the revised National Security Architecture to include a detailed force generation, integration and sustainment plan for Somali security forces, which can enable necessary hold forces for newly recovered areas and the gradual takeover of security responsibilities from ATMIS, in line with Somalia’s strategic needs, as ATMIS draws down;
8. Stresses the importance of planning the implementation of the National Security Architecture down to state and local levels and across force elements, and prioritising as needs and resources require, including the agreement and implementation of security arrangements in newly recovered areas;
9. Calls on the Government of Somalia to focus on implementing its weapons and ammunition management commitments at federal and state levels, and to work with the United Nations and bilateral partners to address the recommendations outlined in the technical assessment of Somalia’s weapons and ammunition management capability (S/2022/698);
10. Looks forward to the forthcoming technical assessment of Somalia’s weapons and ammunition capability and the report due by 15 September 2023, and reaffirms its commitment to working with Somalia to ensure that the procedures set out in paragraphs 14 and 15, and Annexes A and B to resolution 2662 (2022) are lifted progressively, in light of progress made against the benchmarks set out in the technical assessment (S/2022/698);
11. Calls on the Government of Somalia, in coordination with ATMIS, international partners, and relevant United Nations entities, including UNMAS, to combat the illicit trade, transfer, diversion and accumulation of weapons, including small arms and light weapons, and ammunition, to prevent access of unauthorised recipients to all types of explosives and related materials in Somalia, and to ensure their safe and effective management and storage;
12. Calls on the Government of Somalia to work with the United Nations, African Union, European Union and bilateral partners to expedite the development of its sovereign capabilities necessary to gradually takeover security responsibilities from ATMIS, and to enable greater Somali ownership and responsibility in preparation for the exit of ATMIS and scaling-back of UNSOS support;
Part 2: Horn of Africa
13. Underscores that regional cooperation and collaboration, including with the African Union and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), will enhance the effectiveness of the response to transnational threats, including, armed conflict, terrorism and violent extremism conducive to terrorism and the specific threat posed by Al-Shabaab;
14. Urges the Government of Somalia to ensure coordination between ATMIS, regional and bilateral security operations in Somalia to maximise coherence and effectiveness, and encourages Somalia’s partners to coordinate their support;
15. Condemns in the strongest terms the attacks by Al-Shabaab targeting security forces, and its terrorist attacks against government officials, civilians, and civilian infrastructure and ATMIS personnel in Somalia and the wider region, as well as incidents of hostage-taking and kidnapping of civilians, its recruitment, training and use of foreign terrorist fighters, and notes with concern that these activities constitute a threat to peace and security in Somalia, regional stability, integration and development, and exacerbate the humanitarian crisis;
16. Requests the Government of Somalia continue to strengthen cooperation and coordination with other Member States, particularly other Member States in the region, to prevent and counter the financing of terrorism, consistent with resolutions 1373 (2001), 2178 (2014), and 2462 (2019), and urges Somalia, with the support of the African Union, the United Nations, European Union and other Member States to work closer together to increase the delivery of non-military activities to degrade Al-Shabaab and ISIL/Da’esh, to prevent them conducting activities that harm the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia, to counter their terrorist activities, illicit finance, organised crime, access to, and trafficking in, arms and ammunition, including small arms and light weapons, IED manufacture, and to work together with the international community, to implement the measures set out in resolution 2662 (2022), including those measures imposed against individuals and groups designated by the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolution 751 (1992);
Part 3: ATMIS
17. Recalls paragraph 22 of resolution 2628 (2022), extended in paragraph 1 to resolution 2670 (2022), and extends its authorisations until 31 December 2023;
18. Recalls paragraphs 23 and 24 of resolution 2628 (2022), and requests ATMIS to prioritise three activities:
a. maintaining enabling support for peace and security in Somalia, including for the political processes at all levels, including stabilisation efforts, reconciliation and peacebuilding, to ensure a sustainable transition; and
b. supporting FGS-led operations against Al-Shabaab, including by securing vital routes between secured areas across the country;
c. preparing for its smooth drawdown and exit from Somalia as planned;
19. Authorises the Member States of the African Union to deploy up to 17,626 uniformed personnel to ATMIS until 30 September 2023, and 14,626 personnel to ATMIS from 1 October 2023 to 31 December 2023, and affirms its readiness to review these figures in light of the proposal requested in paragraph 41 to this resolution;
20. Recalls its request in resolutions 2628 and 2670 (2022) for an updated logistical support plan, and takes note of the letter from the Secretary-General in this regard dated 8 May 2023, and requests, within agreed budget authorisations, the United Nations to work with ATMIS troop-contributing countries to expedite the process for the deployment of additional air assets, up to a total of 24 helicopters, as well as counter IED, surveillance and other capabilities to enhance ATMIS capabilities for the effective implementation of Phases 2 and 3;
21. Requests the African Union to implement the Phase 2 drawdown to 14,626 personnel jointly with the Government of Somalia as informed by the findings of the Joint Technical Assessment requested in paragraph 40 to this resolution, and ensuring that the drawdown is strategic, reflecting the Government of Somalia’s overarching security transition objectives and the security situation in each ATMIS sector, and takes into account measures for ATMIS force protection, and the need to maintain the hard-won gains across ATMIS’ area of operations;
22. Encourages the African Union to fill ATMIS civilian staff vacancies, and to recruit actively, where practicable and appropriate, Somali nationals to ATMIS’s civilian staff in Somalia to enhance knowledge transfer;
23. Reaffirms paragraphs 31-35 of resolution 2628 (2022);
Part 4: United Nations
24. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to provide a logistical support package, and, in consultation with the African Union and the Government of Somalia, to update the logistical support plan as appropriate, in full compliance with the Human Rights Due Diligence Plan (HRDDP), through the United Nations Support Office for Somalia (UNSOS) for:
a. United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM);
b. ATMIS uniformed personnel in line with paragraph 18 to this resolution, and on the basis set out in paragraph 2 of resolution 2245 (2015); and
c. up to 85 ATMIS civilians, to support ATMIS’ military and police tasks and enhance coordination between the United Nations, African Union and Somalia;
25. Recalls paragraph 2 of resolution 2245 (2015) and decides to extend the provision outlined in sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) to cover 15,900 personnel, rising to 18,900 personnel from 1 October 2023, from the Somali National Army or Somali National Police Force on joint or coordinated operations with ATMIS and agrees to consider increasing this number further by letter from the President of the Security Council, if UNSOS advises there is sufficient funds to do so;
26. Underscores the continued importance of ATMIS and the Government of Somalia working jointly with UNSOS on the delivery of logistics support, including for the pre-positioning of required resources at the Sector Logistics Hubs to enable effective conduct and sustenance of operations, support to early recovery and stabilisation activities, and among other things, integrating UNSOS into planning for:
a. military operations;
b. ensuring convoy and airfield security;
c. protection of civilians; and,
d. protecting main supply routes;
27. Requests the United Nations to begin consultations with the African Union, troop- and police-contributing countries, donors and the Government of Somalia on the implications of ATMIS drawdown for in-country military and police equipment and potential options for disposal, extraction or transfer thereof;
28. Recalls UNSOM’s role in coordinating capacity-building support provided by UNSOM, UNSOS and UN agencies, funds and programmes to Somalia, and encourages continued engagement with Somalia’s bilateral partners to understand wider capacity-building support provision and ensuring alignment where possible;
29. Requests UNSOM and UNSOS in full consultation with the Government of Somalia, to define the logistical and enabling tasks that would need to be transitioned to Somalia when ATMIS departs, and to support Somalia in planning for and developing its sovereign capacity in the following areas:
a. procurement;
b. supply chain management;
c. logistics and warehouse operations, including distribution of weapons and ammunition to and from the front lines;
d. engineering;
e. weapons and ammunition management, including obsolescence management; and
f. human resources management;
30. Requests the Secretary-General to continue United Nations support to Somalia with training, equipment and mentorship to counter the threat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and encourages the United Nations to consult with Somalia’s bilateral training partners to ensure coordination and alignment;
31. Underlines the important role the United Nations can play in supporting stabilisation efforts, including by supporting the Government of Somalia and local authorities to collaborate, prioritise, plan and deliver stabilisation efforts, and by coordinating international support;
32. Encourages the Secretary-General, as appropriate, to consider options for greater nationalisation of UN functions in Somalia, and encourages the United Nations to appoint qualified Somali nationals in Somalia where practicable and appropriate, and, separately, to offer internships and other training opportunities for Somali civil servants to enhance knowledge transfer;
33. Reaffirms paragraph 42 of resolution 2628 (2022) and requests the Government of Somalia and the African Union to agree updated memoranda of understanding with the United Nations on the provision of United Nations support to Somali security forces;
34. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to work closely with the African Union in supporting the implementation of this resolution, including to provide technical and expert advice on the planning, deployment and strategic management of ATMIS during its transition in line with the mandate of the United Nations office to the African Union;
35. Underlines the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for African Union-led peace support operations authorised by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter, and encourages the Secretary-General, African Union and Member States to continue efforts to explore in earnest funding arrangements for ATMIS, bearing in mind the full range of options available to the United Nations, African Union, the European Union, and to other partners, and considering the limitations of voluntary funding, in order to establish secure future funding arrangements for ATMIS;
Part 5: Member States
36. Commends those Member States and Observers, namely the European Union and its Member States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Republic of South Korea, the Republic of India and the Peoples Republic of China, who have made voluntary contributions towards the cost of ATMIS in the past year;
37. Encourages Member States to contribute to the cost of ATMIS and/or towards the UNSOS administered Somalia Trust Fund, and emphasises that additional support will enable Somalia to accelerate its fight against Al-Shabaab and improve peace and security in Somalia and the region and encourages Member States to support ATMIS until the end of security transition by 31 December 2024;
38. Commends Member States and non-governmental organisations who are supporting Somalia bilaterally and encourages them to continue to improve coordination and communication to better align training and capacity building activities, including of training offers, with a view to building sovereign capabilities and to prevent duplication;
39. Encourages Member States to support Somalia at its request with maritime security, including the development of its coast guard, maritime police, and naval forces to reduce maritime crime and prevent smuggling;
Part 6: Reporting
40. Requests the Government of Somalia and the African Union in consultation with the United Nations and international partners, to conduct a joint technical assessment by 31 August 2023 to evaluate Phase 1 drawdown and identity lessons, as well as the implications of the revised National Security Architecture and force generation, to inform planning for the remaining phases of ATMIS drawdown;
41. Requests an update by 15 September 2023 from the African Union and the Government of Somalia on their preparations for Phase 2 drawdown, taking into account the lessons identified from Phase 1, and setting out a clear plan and timescale for Phase 2 drawdown;
42. Requests the United Nations to work with Somalia and the African Union to understand stabilisation needs and to conduct an independent assessment, by 30 September 2023, of Somalia’s current stabilisation needs and efforts, including their prioritisation, planning, management, coordination, delivery and impact and to suggest recommendations for future consideration;
43. Requests the Government of Somalia to provide an update to the Security Council by 30 November 2023 on progress in implementing its revised National Security Architecture and force generation and integration;
44. Requests the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council regularly informed on the implementation of this resolution in their regular reports requested in paragraph 15 of resolution 2657 (2022) and requests these reports contain updates on capacity-building in Somalia, and, in full consultation with the Government of Somalia, make recommendations to the Security Council on capacity-building requirements as necessary;
45. Expresses its intention to request the United Nations to build on the recent strategic review of UNSOM (S/2022/716) and commission an independent strategic review of UNSOS, in full consultation with the Government of Somalia and the African Union, and to present a proposal for the future design of United Nations support to Somalia from 2025, and encourages the African Union to share its strategic review for Somalia following the exit of ATMIS;
46. Encourages the Government of Somalia, in consultation with the United Nations and the African Union, to consider options for ensuring ongoing security around strategic locations, including the international airport complex in Mogadishu, following the exit of ATMIS;
47. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

The situation in Somalia (ATMIS).
Related with resolutions
751 1325 1373 2178 2245 2462 2628 2657 2662 2670
Quoted in resolutions
Security Council Composition