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Resolution 1868

The situation in Afghanistan


S/RES/1868 (2009)
Security Council Distr.: General
23 March 2009
09-27712 (E) 230309
Resolution 1868 (2009)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 6098th meeting, on
23 March 2009
The Security Council,
Recalling its previous resolutions on Afghanistan, in particular its resolution
1806 (2008) extending through 23 March 2009 the mandate of the United Nations
Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) as established by resolution 1662
(2006), and its resolution 1659 (2006) endorsing the Afghanistan Compact, and
recalling also the report of the Security Council mission to Afghanistan, 21 to
28 November 2008 (S/2008/782),
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial
integrity and national unity of Afghanistan,
Stressing the importance of a comprehensive approach to address the situation
in Afghanistan, and recognizing that there is no purely military solution to ensure
the stability of Afghanistan,
Reaffirming its continued support for the Government and people of
Afghanistan as they rebuild their country, strengthen the foundations of sustainable
peace and constitutional democracy and assume their rightful place in the
community of nations,
Reaffirming in this context its support for the implementation, under the
ownership of the Afghan people, of the Afghanistan Compact, of the Afghanistan
National Development Strategy (ANDS) and of the National Drugs Control Strategy,
and noting that sustained and coordinated efforts by all relevant actors are required
to consolidate progress made towards their implementation and to overcome
continuing challenges,
Recalling that the Afghanistan Compact is based on a partnership between the
Afghan Government and the international community, based on the desire of the
parties for Afghanistan to progressively assume responsibility for its own
development and security, and with a central and impartial coordinating role for the
United Nations,
Stressing the central and impartial role that the United Nations continues to
play in promoting peace and stability in Afghanistan by leading the efforts of the
international community, including, jointly with the Government of Afghanistan, the
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coordination and monitoring of efforts in implementing the Afghanistan Compact,
and expressing its appreciation and strong support for the ongoing efforts of the
Secretary-General, his Special Representative for Afghanistan and the women and
men of UNAMA,
Welcoming the continued commitment of the international community to
support the stability and development of Afghanistan, and also welcoming in this
regard international initiatives including the special conference on Afghanistan
under the aegis of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to be held in Moscow on
27 March 2009, the International Conference on Afghanistan to be held in The
Hague on 31 March 2009 and the Outreach Session of the G8 Ministerial Meeting to
be held in Trieste on 26 to 27 June 2009,
Welcoming ongoing efforts to ensure an orderly, open, fair and democratic
process that preserves stability and security through the election period,
underscoring the challenges that the Afghan Independent Electoral Commission
(IEC) is successfully confronting, and welcoming the announcement by the IEC to
hold presidential and provincial council elections in August 2009,
Recognizing once again the interconnected nature of the challenges in
Afghanistan, reaffirming that sustainable progress on security, governance and
development, as well as the cross-cutting issue of counter-narcotics is mutually
reinforcing and welcoming the continuing efforts of the Afghan Government and the
international community to address these challenges through a comprehensive
Stressing the importance of a comprehensive approach in addressing the
challenges in Afghanistan and noting, in this context, the synergies in the objectives
of UNAMA and of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), and stressing
the need for strengthened cooperation, coordination and mutual support, taking due
account of their respective designated responsibilities,
Stressing the need of urgently addressing the humanitarian situation through
improving the reach, quality and quantity of humanitarian aid, ensuring efficient,
effective and timely coordination and delivery of humanitarian assistance through
enhanced coordination among the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes
under the authority of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and
between the United Nations and other donors, and through the expansion and
strengthening of the United Nations humanitarian presence in the provinces, where
it is most needed,
Condemning the increasing attacks against humanitarian workers, and
underlining the need for all parties to ensure safe and unhindered access of all
humanitarian actors, including United Nations staff and associated personnel, and
comply fully with applicable international humanitarian law,
Reiterating its concern about the security situation in Afghanistan, in particular
the increased violent and terrorist activities by the Taliban, Al-Qaida, illegally
armed groups, criminals and those involved in the narcotics trade, and the
increasingly strong links between terrorism activities and illicit drugs, resulting in
threats to the local population, including children, national security forces and
international military and civilian personnel,
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Expressing also its serious concern over the harmful consequences of violent
and terrorist activities by the Taliban, Al-Qaida and other extremist groups on the
capacity of the Afghan Government to guarantee the rule of law, to provide security
and basic services to the Afghan people, and to ensure the improvement and
protection of their human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Recognizing the increased threats posed by the Taliban, Al-Qaida and other
extremist groups as well as the challenges related to the efforts to address such
Recalling its resolutions 1674 (2006) and 1738 (2006) on the protection of
civilians in armed conflict, expressing its concern at the high number of civilian
casualties as stated in the recent report of the Secretary-General on the situation in
Afghanistan, reiterating its call for all feasible steps to be taken to ensure the
protection of civilians, and calling for compliance with international humanitarian
and human rights law as applicable,
Expressing also concern with the serious threat that anti-personnel mines,
remnants of war and improvised explosive devices may pose to the civilian
population, and stressing the need to refrain from the use of weapons and devices
prohibited by international law,
Welcoming the declaration addressed to the International Narcotics Control
Board (INCB) by the Government of Afghanistan that there is no legal use for acetic
anhydride in Afghanistan for the time being and that producing and exporting
countries should abstain from authorizing the export of this substance to
Afghanistan without the request from the Afghan Government, and encouraging,
pursuant to resolution 1817 (2008), Member States to increase their cooperation
with the INCB, notably by fully complying with the provisions of article 12 of the
United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances, 1988,
Recalling the importance of the Kabul Declaration of 22 December 2002 on
Good-Neighbourly Relations (Kabul Declaration) (S/2002/1416), looking forward to
the Third Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan to be held in
Islamabad, and stressing the crucial importance of advancing regional cooperation
as an effective means to promote security, governance and development in
Expressing its support for the Afghan-Pakistani Peace Jirga process,
Recalling its resolutions 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), 1674 (2006) and 1738
(2006) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, its resolutions 1325 (2000)
and 1820 (2008) on women and peace and security, and its resolution 1612 (2005)
on children and armed conflict, and taking note of the report of the Secretary-
General (S/2008/695) on Children and Armed Conflict in Afghanistan,
1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General of 10 March 2009
2. Expresses its appreciation for the United Nations long-term commitment
to work with the Government and the people of Afghanistan and reiterates its full
support to the work of UNAMA and the Special Representative of the Secretary-
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3. Decides to extend the mandate of UNAMA, as defined in its resolutions
1662 (2006), 1746 (2007) and 1806 (2008), until 23 March 2010;
4. Decides further that UNAMA and the Special Representative of the
Secretary-General, within their mandate and guided by the principle of reinforcing
Afghan ownership and leadership, will continue to lead the international civilian
efforts, in accordance with their priorities as laid out in paragraph 4 of its resolution
1806 (2008), to, namely:
(a) promote, as co-chair of the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board
(JCMB), more coherent support by the international community to the Afghan
Government and the adherence to the principles of aid effectiveness enumerated in
the Afghanistan Compact, including through mobilization of resources, coordination
of the assistance provided by international donors and organizations, and direction
of the contributions of United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, in
particular for counter-narcotics, reconstruction and development activities;
(b) strengthen the cooperation with ISAF at all levels and throughout the
country, in accordance with their existing mandates, in order to improve civilmilitary
coordination, to facilitate the timely exchange of information and to ensure
coherence between the activities of national and international security forces and of
civilian actors in support of an Afghan-led development and stabilization process,
including through engagement with provincial reconstruction teams and engagement
with non-governmental organizations;
(c) through a strengthened and expanded presence throughout the country,
provide political outreach, promote at the local level the implementation of the
Compact, of the ANDS and of the National Drugs Control Strategy, and facilitate
inclusion in and understanding of the Government’s policies;
(d) provide good offices to support, if requested by the Afghan Government,
the implementation of Afghan-led reconciliation programmes, within the framework
of the Afghan Constitution and with full respect for the implementation of measures
introduced by the Security Council in its resolution 1267 (1999) and other relevant
resolutions of the Council;
(e) support and strengthen efforts to improve governance and the rule of law
and to combat corruption at the local and national levels, and to promote
development initiatives at the local level with a view to helping bring the benefits of
peace and deliver services in a timely and sustainable manner;
(f) play a central coordinating role to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian
assistance in accordance with humanitarian principles and with a view to building
the capacity of the Afghan Government, including by providing effective support to
national and local authorities in assisting and protecting internally displaced persons
and to creating conditions conducive to the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable
return of refugees and internally displaced persons;
(g) continue, with the support of the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Human Rights, to cooperate with the Afghan Independent Human
Rights Commission (AIHRC), to cooperate also with relevant international and local
non-governmental organizations, to monitor the situation of civilians, to coordinate
efforts to ensure their protection and to assist in the full implementation of the
fundamental freedoms and human rights provisions of the Afghan Constitution and
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international treaties to which Afghanistan is a State party, in particular those
regarding the full enjoyment by women of their human rights;
(h) support, at the request of the Afghan authorities, preparations for the
crucial upcoming presidential elections, in particular through the IEC, by providing
technical assistance, coordinating other international donors, agencies and
organizations providing assistance and channelling existing and additional funds
earmarked to support the process;
(i) support regional cooperation to work towards a stable and prosperous
5. Calls upon all Afghan and international parties to coordinate with
UNAMA in the implementation of its mandate and in efforts to promote the security
and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel throughout
the country;
6. Stresses the importance of strengthening and expanding the presence of
UNAMA and other United Nations agencies, funds and programmes in the
provinces, encourages the Secretary-General to continue his current efforts to take
necessary measures to address the security issues associated with such strengthening
and expansion, and underlines the authority of the Special Representative of the
Secretary-General in the coordination of all activities of United Nations agencies,
funds and programmes in Afghanistan;
7. Underscores the importance of the upcoming presidential and provincial
council elections to Afghanistan’s democratic development, calls for all efforts to be
made to ensure the credibility, safety and security of the elections, recognizes
UNAMA’s key role, at the request of the Afghan Government, in supporting the
electoral process, and calls upon members of the international community to
provide the necessary assistance to these ends;
8. Calls on the Afghan Government, and the international community and
international organizations, to implement the Afghanistan Compact and its annexes
in full, and stresses in this context the importance of meeting the benchmarks and
timelines of the Compact for progress on security, governance, the rule of law and
human rights, and economic and social development, as well as the cross-cutting
issue of counter-narcotics;
9. Reaffirms the central role played by the JCMB in coordinating,
facilitating and monitoring the implementation of the Compact and calls upon all
relevant actors to cooperate with the JCMB in this regard;
10. Calls on international donors and organizations and the Afghan
Government to adhere to their commitments made at the International Conference in
Support of Afghanistan, held in Paris on 12 June 2008 and reiterates the importance
of further efforts in improving aid coordination and effectiveness, including by
ensuring transparency, and combating corruption;
11. Calls upon the Afghan Government, with the assistance of the
international community, including ISAF and the Operation Enduring Freedom
coalition, in accordance with their respective designated responsibilities as they
evolve, to continue to address the threat to the security and stability of Afghanistan
posed by the Taliban, Al-Qaida, illegally armed groups, criminals and those
involved in the narcotics trade;
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12. Condemns in the strongest terms all attacks, including Improvised
Explosive Device attacks, suicide attacks and abductions, targeting civilians and
Afghan and international forces and their deleterious effect on the stabilization,
reconstruction and development efforts in Afghanistan, and condemns further the
use by the Taliban and other extremist groups of civilians as human shields;
13. Welcomes the achievements to date in the implementation of the Mine
Action Programme of Afghanistan, and encourages the Government of Afghanistan,
with the support of the United Nations and all the relevant actors, to continue its
efforts towards the removal of anti-personnel landmines, anti-tank landmines and
explosive remnants of war in order to reduce the threats posed to human life and
peace and security in the country;
14. Recognizes the efforts taken by ISAF and other international forces to
minimize the risk of civilian casualties, and calls on them to continue to take robust
efforts in this regard, notably by the continuous review of tactics and procedures and
the conduct of after-action reviews and investigations in cooperation with the
Afghan Government in cases where civilian casualties have occurred and when the
Afghan Government finds these joint investigations appropriate;
15. Emphasizes the importance of ensuring access for relevant
organizations, as applicable, to all prisons and places of detention in Afghanistan,
and calls for full respect for relevant international law including humanitarian law
and human rights law;
16. Expresses its strong concern about the recruitment and use of children by
Taliban forces in Afghanistan as well as the killing and maiming of children as a
result of the conflict, reiterates its strong condemnation of the recruitment and use
of child soldiers in violation of applicable international law and all other violations
and abuses committed against children in situations of armed conflict, in particular
attacks against schools, calls for those responsible to be brought to justice, stresses
the importance of implementing Security Council resolution 1612 (2005), in this
context, and requests the Secretary-General to strengthen the child protection
component of UNAMA, in particular through the appointment of child protection
17. Reiterates the importance of increasing, in a comprehensive framework,
the functionality, professionalism and accountability of the Afghan security sector
through training, mentoring and empowerment efforts, in order to accelerate
progress towards the goal of self-sufficient and ethnically balanced Afghan security
forces providing security and ensuring the rule of law throughout the country;
18. Welcomes in this context the continued progress in the development of
the Afghan National Army and its improved ability to plan and undertake
operations, and encourages sustained training efforts, including through the
Operational Mentoring and Liaison Teams, and advice in developing a sustainable
defence planning process as well as assistance in defence reform initiatives;
19. Takes note with appreciation of the recent serious efforts of the Afghan
authorities to enhance the capabilities of the Afghan National Police, calls for
further efforts towards that goal, including through the Focused District
Development, and stresses the importance, in this context, of international
assistance through financial support and provision of trainers and mentors, including
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the contribution of the European Union through its police mission (EUPOL
20. Welcomes the progress in the implementation by the Afghan Government
of the programme of disbandment of illegal armed groups, and calls for accelerated
efforts for further progress, with support from the international community;
21. Takes note of the recent progress in addressing opium production,
remains concerned at the serious harm that opium cultivation, production and
trafficking continue to cause to the security, development and governance of
Afghanistan as well as to the region and internationally, calls on the Afghan
Government, with the assistance of the international community, to accelerate the
implementation of the National Drug Control Strategy, including through alternative
livelihood programmes, and to mainstream counter-narcotics throughout national
programmes, and encourages additional international support for the four priorities
identified in that Strategy;
22. Calls upon States to strengthen international and regional cooperation to
counter the threat to the international community posed by the illicit production and
trafficking of drugs originated in Afghanistan, including through border
management cooperation in drug control and cooperation for the fight against the
illicit trafficking in drugs and precursors and against money-laundering linked to
such trafficking, taking into account the outcome of the Second Ministerial
Conference on Drug Trafficking Routes from Afghanistan organized by the
Government of the Russian Federation in cooperation with the United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime held in Moscow from 26 to 28 June 2006 (S/2006/598),
within the framework of the Paris Pact initiative, and, in this regard, calls for full
implementation of its resolution 1817 (2008);
23. Welcomes the launch of the National Justice Programme, and reiterates
the importance of its full, sequenced, timely and coordinated implementation by all
the relevant Afghan institutions and other actors in view of accelerating the
establishment of a fair and transparent justice system, eliminating impunity and
contributing to the affirmation of the rule of law throughout the country;
24. Stresses in this context the importance of further progress in the
reconstruction and reform of the prison sector in Afghanistan, in order to improve
the respect for the rule of law and human rights therein;
25. Notes with strong concern the effects of widespread corruption on
security, good governance, counter-narcotics efforts and economic development, and
urges the Afghan Government, with the assistance of the international community,
to vigorously lead the fight against corruption, and to enhance its efforts to establish
a more effective, accountable and transparent administration;
26. Encourages all Afghan institutions, including the executive and
legislative branches, to work in a spirit of cooperation, calls on the Afghan
Government to pursue continued legislative and public administration reform in
order to ensure good governance, full representation and accountability at both
national and subnational levels, and stresses the need for further international efforts
to provide technical assistance in this area;
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27. Encourages the international community to assist the Government of
Afghanistan in making capacity-building and human resources development a crosscutting
28. Calls for full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and
international humanitarian law throughout Afghanistan, notes with concern the
increasing restrictions on freedom of media, commends the AIHRC for its
courageous efforts to monitor respect for human rights in Afghanistan as well as to
foster and protect these rights and to promote the emergence of a pluralistic civil
society, and stresses the importance of full cooperation with the AIHRC by all
relevant actors;
29. Recognizes the significant progress achieved on gender equality in
Afghanistan in recent years, strongly condemns continuing forms of discrimination
and violence against women and girls, in particular violence aimed at preventing
girls from attending schools, stresses the importance of implementing Security
Council resolutions 1325 (2000) and 1820 (2008), and requests the Secretary-
General to continue to include in its reports to the Security Council relevant
information on the process of integration of women into the political, economic and
social life of Afghanistan;
30. Welcomes the efforts of the Afghan Government to promote dialogue
with those elements in opposition to the Government who are ready to renounce
violence, denounce terrorism and accept the Afghan Constitution, and calls for
enhanced efforts to ensure the full implementation of the Action Plan on Peace,
Justice and Reconciliation in accordance with the Afghanistan Compact, without
prejudice to the implementation of measures introduced by the Security Council in
its resolution 1267 (1999) of 15 October 1999 and other relevant resolutions of the
Security Council;
31. Welcomes the cooperation of the Afghan Government and UNAMA with
the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) with
the implementation of resolution 1822 (2008), including by identifying individuals
and entities participating in the financing or support of acts or activities of Al-Qaida
and the Taliban using proceeds derived from illicit cultivation, production and
trafficking of narcotic drugs and their precursors, and encourages the continuation
of such cooperation;
32. Welcomes ongoing efforts by the Government of Afghanistan and its
neighbouring and regional partners to foster trust and cooperation with each other as
well as recent cooperation initiatives developed by the countries concerned and
regional organizations, including the Second Trilateral Summit of Afghanistan,
Pakistan and Turkey held in Istanbul in December 2008 and the ministerial meeting
in La Celle Saint-Cloud, France, in December 2008, and stresses the importance of
increasing cooperation between Afghanistan and the partners against the Taliban,
Al-Qaida and other extremist groups, in promoting peace and prosperity in
Afghanistan and in fostering cooperation in the economic and development sectors
as a means to achieve the full integration of Afghanistan into regional dynamics and
the global economy;
33. Calls for strengthening the process of regional economic cooperation,
including measures to facilitate regional trade, to increase foreign investments and
to develop infrastructure, noting Afghanistan’s historic role as a land bridge in Asia;
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34. Recognizes the importance of voluntary, safe, orderly return and
sustainable reintegration of the remaining Afghan refugees for the stability of the
country and the region, and calls for continued and enhanced international
assistance in this regard;
35. Affirms also the importance of voluntary, safe, orderly return and
sustainable reintegration of the internally displaced persons;
36. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council every three
months on developments in Afghanistan, and to develop, for inclusion in his next
report, benchmarks for measuring and tracking progress in the implementation of
UNAMA’s mandate and priorities as set out in paragraph 4 of this resolution, and
calls on all actors concerned to cooperate with UNAMA in this process;
37. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

The situation in Afghanistan
Related with resolutions
1265 1267 1296 1325 1612 1659 1662 1674 1738 1746 1806 1817 1820 1822
Quoted in resolutions
1890 1917 1974 2041 2096 2145 2210 2274 2344 2405 2460 2489 2543 2626
Security Council Composition