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Resolution 2343

The situation in Guinea-Bissau


S/RES/2343 (2017)
Security Council Distr.: General 23 February 2017
Resolution 2343 (2017)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 7890th meeting, on 23 February 2017
The Security Council, Recalling its previous resolutions, statements of its President and press statements on the situation in Guinea-Bissau, in particular resolutions 1876 (2009), 2030 (2011), 2048 (2012), 2092 (2013), 2103 (2013), 2157 (2014), 2186 (2014), 2203 (2015) and 2267 (2016), Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on Guinea-Bissau, dated 7 February 2017 (S/2017/111) and the recommendations contained therein, and underscoring the Secretary-General’s positive appreciation of the role of his Special Representative and head of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS) in assisting the Government of Guinea-Bissau, Stressing the need for the Government of Guinea-Bissau to continue to take concrete steps towards peace, security and stability in the country, by effectively reforming the security sector, tackling corruption through the reinforcement of the judicial system, improving public administration and State revenue management, as well as the supply of basic services to the population, and commending its commitment to the implementation of its national priorities, Expressing concerns over the ongoing protracted political and institutional crisis among the President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of Parliament and heads of political parties which has prevented the country from moving forward with its national reform agenda and threatens to undermine the progress made in GuineaBissau since the restoration of constitutional order following the elections held in 2014, Welcoming the continued engagement of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Modibo Ibrahim Touré, the President of the Republic of Liberia, Her Excellency Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, in her capacity as the Chairperson of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the President of the Republic of Guinea, His Excellency Alpha Conde, in his dual capacity of Chairperson of the African Union and ECOWAS Mediator for Guinea-Bissau, the Special Representative of the African Union, Ovidio Pequeno, and other interlocutors in the search for a peaceful solution to the impasse and recalling the
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need for concerted action among the United Nations, ECOWAS, the African Union, the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP), and the European Union (EU), Further welcoming the adoption, on 10 September 2016, by ECOWAS, of the six-point road map entitled “Agreement on the Resolution of the Political Crisis in Guinea-Bissau” brokered by ECOWAS and the Conakry Agreement on the implementation of the road map, Commending the commitment demonstrated by the ECOWAS Authority of Heads of States and Government at their Summit on 17 December 2016 to supporting the implementation of the ECOWAS brokered road map and the Conakry Agreement, Emphasizing the need for respect of democratic principles and stressing the importance of national reconciliation, inclusive dialogue and good governance, essential for the attainment of lasting peace in Guinea-Bissau, further stressing the importance of including all Bissau-Guineans in this process at national and local levels, while upholding the principles of separation of powers, rule of law, justice and combating impunity, and encouraging all stakeholders to engage in the process, Stressing that the consolidation of peace and stability in Guinea-Bissau can only result from a consensual, inclusive and nationally owned process, respect for constitutional order, priority reforms in the defence, security and justice sectors, the promotion of the rule of law, the protection of human rights, the promotion of socioeconomic development and the fight against impunity and drug trafficking, in the framework of the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Guinea-Bissau, Reaffirming the importance of the continued non-interference of the defence and security forces in the political situation in Guinea-Bissau, and commending the restraint shown in this regard as well as the peacefulness of the people of GuineaBissau, Underscoring the importance of the Government of Guinea-Bissau, with the support of UNIOGBIS and international partners, to continue developing national security and rule of law institutions that are transparent, accountable and professional, Stressing that all stakeholders in Guinea-Bissau should work to ensure short, medium and long-term stability through clear commitment and genuine inclusive political dialogue aimed at creating conditions conducive to finding viable and sustainable solutions to the country’s social, economic, political and military problems, which would facilitate the implementation of key reforms and the strengthening of State institutions, Noting efforts of the Government to gain effective civilian control and oversight over the defence and security forces, as failure to do so could adversely affect the effective functioning of State institutions, as a result of collusion between some political actors and the military leadership, Commending the efforts of ECOWAS in helping to sustain peace, security and development and to support the security sector reform (SSR) process in GuineaBissau namely through the activities of its Mission (ECOMIB),
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Welcoming the continued contribution of ECOMIB in ensuring an environment that enables the implementation of critical reforms in the defence and security sector and encouraging the international community to support the continuation of such efforts, Taking note with concern of the financial difficulties faced by ECOMIB in continuing to implement its mandate, Reiterating its call on the Government of Guinea-Bissau to conduct transparent, independent and credible investigations into human rights violations and abuses, in accordance with international standards, and to hold those responsible accountable for their actions, Reiterating its concern at the threat posed by drug trafficking, as well as trafficking in all forms, including trafficking in persons, and related transnational organized crime to peace and stability; and, in this regard, welcoming the efforts of the Government of Guinea-Bissau, ECOWAS, UNIOGBIS, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other relevant stakeholders in combating this issue, Re-emphasizing the need to tackle the problem of drug trafficking in the countries of origin, transit and final destination on a basis of a common and shared responsibility, to tackle the world drug problem and related criminal activities; and, in this regard, stressing the need for increased coherence, coordination and efficiency among relevant partners to enhance their collective efforts, in particular through sharing of information, underlining that any lasting solution to instability in Guinea-Bissau should include concrete actions to fight impunity and ensure that those responsible for politically motivated assassinations and other serious crimes such as breaches of constitutional order and drug trafficking-related activities are brought to justice, including through national judicial mechanisms, Reiterating the importance and urgency of the continued evaluation capacity and support provided by the relevant United Nations entities and international, regional, subregional and bilateral partners for the long-term security and development of Guinea-Bissau, particularly towards the implementation of security and justice sectors reforms, the fight against transnational organized crime as well as the creation of an enabling environment for good governance and inclusive and sustainable social development, and in this regard, commending the important work UNODC in collaboration with relevant United Nations entities in Guinea-Bissau and the subregion, and encouraging enhanced cooperation between UNODC and UNIOGBIS, Emphasizing the role of UNICEF working closely with government to create the proper conditions to provide education for the children of Guinea-Bissau, Emphasizing the important role of women in prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, as recognized in resolutions 1325 (2000) and subsequent resolution on women, peace and security, Emphasizing the cooperation between UNIOGBIS, national authorities and civil society organizations to increase women’s participation in Guinea-Bissau and underlining that a gender perspective must continue to inform the implementation of all relevant aspects of the mandate of UNIOGBIS, including security sector reform,
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national reconciliation processes, institution building and to address the root causes of instability, Reaffirming that Guinea-Bissau’s partners should continue to actively and closely coordinate their actions in support of the Government’s efforts to address the country’s political, security and development challenges, and in this regard, welcoming the coordinated support provided by the country’s partners, namely those in the United Nations system, the African Union, ECOWAS, the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP), the EU, the World Bank, and the African Development Bank, to the Government during the International Donor Conference for Guinea-Bissau held on 25 March 2015 in Brussels, Welcoming the final Communiqué of the Fiftieth Ordinary Session of the ECOWAS Heads of State and Government, held in Abuja, Nigeria, on 17 December 2016 and the African Union Peace and Security Council Communique of its 658th meeting, held on 13 February 2017, supporting the implementation of the ECOWAS road map and the Conakry Agreement, Welcoming the continued engagement of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) with Guinea-Bissau, and noting the statement issued by the Commission on 16 February 2017 expressing its deep commitment to supporting the successful implementation of the ECOWAS road map and the national development plan “Terra Ranka”, Reaffirming its full commitment to the consolidation of peace and stability in Guinea-Bissau, 1. Decides to extend the mandate of UNIOGBIS for a period of 12 months beginning on 1 March 2017 until 28 February 2018; 2. Expresses its strong support for the key role of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Guinea-Bissau, fully endorses the recommendations of the strategic review mission as outlined in the SecretaryGeneral’s report regarding the need for UNIOGBIS to refocus its existing efforts towards political capacities in support of the SRSG’s good offices and political facilitation role, and to streamline its management structure, and further requests UNIOGBIS, including through the use of the good offices and political supports of the Special Representative, to focus, in particular, on the following priorities: (a) Support an inclusive political dialogue and national reconciliation process to strengthen democratic governance and work towards consensus on key political issues particularly with regards to the implementation of necessary urgent reforms; (b) Supports, including by technical assistance, the national authorities in expediting and completing the review of Guinea-Bissau’s Constitution; (c) Provide strategic and technical advice and support to national authorities and relevant stakeholders, including in coordination with ECOWAS/ECOMIB and other international partners, in implementing the national security sector reform and rule of law strategies, as well as developing civilian and military justice systems that are compliant with international standards;
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(d) Support the Government of Guinea-Bissau, in cooperation with the Peacebuilding Commission towards the mobilization, harmonization and coordination of international assistance, including for the implementation of the national security sector reform and rule of law strategies, and enhancing cooperation with the AU, ECOWAS, CPLP, EU and other partners in support of the maintenance of constitutional order and the stabilization of Guinea-Bissau; 3. Affirms that UNIOGBIS and the Special Representative will continue to lead international efforts in the following priority areas: (a) Providing support to the Government of Guinea-Bissau in strengthening democratic institutions and enhancing the capacity of state organs to function effectively and constitutionally; (b) Providing strategic and technical advice and support for the establishment of effective and efficient law enforcement and criminal justice and penitentiary systems, capable of maintaining public security and combating impunity, while respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms; (c) Assisting national authorities in the promotion and protection of human rights as well as undertake human rights monitoring and reporting activities; (d) Providing strategic and technical advice and support to the Government of Guinea-Bissau to combat drug trafficking and transnational organized crime, in close cooperation with UNODC; (e) Providing support to the Government of Guinea-Bissau to incorporate a gender perspective into peacebuilding, in line with Security Council resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008) and 2242 (2015); as well as implementation of the National Action Plan on Gender in order to ensure the involvement, representation and participation of women at all levels through inter alia the provision of gender advisers; 4. Endorses the Conakry Agreement of 14 October 2016, based on the road map, as primary framework for a peaceful resolution of the political crisis, as it offers a historic opportunity for national authorities and political leaders, as well as civil society, to jointly ensure political stability and build sustainable peace, welcomes and supports the intention of ECOWAS to urgently dispatch a high-level mission to Guinea-Bissau, as part of the follow-up steps for the implementation of the Conakry Agreement, in order to identify and address the obstacles impeding the implementation of the Agreement, with the view to promoting a durable solution to the crisis in that country; 5. Urges all political actors to put the interest of the people of GuineaBissau above all other consideration and in this regard, calls upon Bissau-Guinean leaders, including the President, the Speaker of Parliament and heads of political parties to abide by their commitment to bring political stability to Guinea-Bissau in engaging in genuine dialogue and finding common ground for a swift resolution of the political crisis; 6. Calls upon the Bissau-Guinean stakeholders to strictly respect and comply with the Conakry Agreement and the ECOWAS road map in addressing their differences and the challenges facing their country, and further calls upon the
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Bissau-Guinean stakeholders to refrain from actions and statements that could escalate tensions and incite violence; 7. Emphasizes the importance of passing key reforms, as outlined in the Conakry Agreement aimed at creating a conducive environment for the holding of legislative and presidential elections in 2018 and 2019, reform of the electoral code and promulgation of a new law on political parties and requests UNIOGBIS to work closely with national authorities, as well as the United Nations Country Team (UNCT) in support of the timely conduct of these elections, and to strengthen democracy and good governance; 8. Calls upon the authorities of Guinea-Bissau and all stakeholders, including the military, political parties, and civil society to work together to consolidate progress made so far, and to address the root causes of instability with particular attention to political-military dynamics, ineffective state institutions and rule of law, impunity and human rights violations and abuses, poverty and lack of access to basic services; 9. Underscores the need for inclusive dialogue to consolidate peace and stability in Guinea-Bissau and calls upon the national authorities to expedite the review of Guinea-Bissau’s Constitution; 10. Call on the security and defence services to continue to submit themselves fully to civilian control; 11. Commends the important efforts of ECOWAS and encourages ECOWAS to continue extending its political support to the authorities and political leaders of Guinea-Bissau through the use of good offices and mediation; 12. Encourages ECOWAS and CPLP to take the necessary steps towards organizing a meeting of the International Contact Group on Guinea-Bissau, in consultation with the United Nations, EU, and all stakeholders; 13. Takes note of the evolving human rights situation in the country and urges the authorities of Guinea-Bissau to take all necessary measures to protect human rights, put an end to impunity, initiate investigations to identify the perpetrators of human rights violations and abuses, including those against women and children, and bring them to justice and take action to protect witnesses in order to ensure due process; 14. Welcomes the joint efforts by international partners, in particular the United Nations, African Union, ECOWAS, EU and CPLP, to enhance cooperation in support of the Government in Guinea-Bissau and encourages them to continue to work together towards the country’s stabilization in accordance with the priority structural reforms established by the government, and in this regard, recognizes the role of the Peacebuilding Commission in enhancing these efforts with a view to supporting the long-term peacebuilding priorities of Guinea-Bissau; 15. Recognizes the ongoing implementation of some defence and security sector reforms and encourages the continuation of further efforts as a crucial element for long-term stability in Guinea-Bissau and further encourages coordinated action by all relevant subregional, regional and international partners of Guinea-Bissau in this field in order to obtain expeditious and positive results;
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16. Commends the crucial role of ECOMIB in securing the state institutions and in supporting SSR, expresses strong appreciation for its contribution to stability in Guinea-Bissau and encourages ECOWAS to consider a further extension of its mandate, supports its continuation and urges bilateral, regional and international partners to consider providing financial assistance to support ECOWAS in sustaining the deployment of ECOMIB, commends the financial support provided by the EU and welcomes its willingness to consider options for providing further support to ECOMIB; 17. Calls upon the authorities of Guinea-Bissau to continue to actively reform and strengthen the judicial system, while ensuring the separation of powers and access to justice for all citizens; 18. Reiterates its call upon the authorities of Guinea-Bissau to implement and review national legislations and mechanisms to more effectively combat transnational organized crime, including drug trafficking, trafficking in persons and money-laundering, which threaten security and stability in Guinea-Bissau and in the subregion, and in this context, to provide additional support to the Transnational Crime Unit (TCU) established under the West Africa Coast Initiative (WACI) and the Intergovernmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA); encourages international bilateral and multilateral partners to increase their support to these institutions and further encourages these partners to contribute to support the presence of UNODC in Guinea-Bissau and to the UNIOGBIS Trust Fund for immediate, medium and longer-term priorities; calls upon the international community to enhance cooperation with Guinea-Bissau to enable it to ensure control of air traffic and surveillance of maritime security within its jurisdiction, in particular to fight drug trafficking and transnational organized crime, as well as illegal fishing in Guinea-Bissau’s territorial waters and exclusive economic zone and other cases of illegal exploitation of natural resources; and urges the authorities of Guinea-Bissau to demonstrate full commitment to combating drug trafficking; 19. Stresses the importance of combating drug trafficking to achieve political and economic stability in Guinea-Bissau, requests the Secretary-General to ensure the relevant capacity within the existing UNIOGBIS structure, continuing to contribute to the anti-drug efforts, including appropriate expertise and further requests the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to increase efforts to achieve greater coherence, coordination and efficiency among relevant United Nations agencies, funds and programmes in the country to maximize their collective effectiveness, in particular through provision by these agencies, funds and programmes of relevant information to the Special Representative on individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with drug trafficking and transnational organized crime that contribute to creating a threat to the peace, stability and security of Guinea-Bissau and the subregion; 20. Commends the good offices role of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to support the Government of Guinea-Bissau, and invites the Secretary-General to reinforce UNIOGBIS’ capacities in this regard and to continue strengthening the coordination for international support; 21. Urges Bissau-Guinean national stakeholders to demonstrate the necessary commitment to re-establish momentum for progress in key areas, as outlined in the programme “Terra Ranka” presented to the donor community at the
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Brussels round table held in March 2015, invites Guinea-Bissau’s partners to fulfil the pledges they made at that round table and also encourages UNIOGBIS to assist in the coordination of international assistance to the Government of Guinea-Bissau in its fight against poverty; 22. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the Security Council regular reports every six months on the implementation of this resolution and to submit a report within six months, with a briefing to the Committee established pursuant to its resolution 2048 (2012), on the progress made with regards to the stabilization of the country and restoration of constitutional order and recommendations on the continuation of the sanctions regime in the post-election environment, in line with paragraph 12 of resolution 2048 (2012); 23. Decides to review the sanctions measures established pursuant to resolution 2048 (2012) seven months from the adoption of this resolution; 24. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

The situation in Guinea-Bissau
Related with resolutions
1325 1820 1876 2030 2048 2092 2103 2157 2186 2203 2242 2267
Quoted in resolutions
2404 2458
Security Council Composition